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Other Aspects of Wudoo

Other Aspects of Wudoo

The Siwaak

The SIWAAK is that which the mouth is brushed with. And it is also called the MISWAAK, the plural being: SOOK. And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree and it is a well-known tree. Abu Hanifah said: It is the best of the trees whose twigs are used for brushing the teeth... smelling of milk. Abu Ziyaad said: From it is taken there tooth-sticks - from its twigs and roots - and the best part for that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading..And Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot green tree with many leaves and branches, having weak wood and growing in hollows - miswaaks are taken from it, being one of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-'Arab, 268).

It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the siwaak at many different times as is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) that he used to use the siwaak at every Prayer, and before reading the Qur'an, and before sleeping and when waking, and when the breath changes - whether fasting or not - or whether at the start of the day or in the afternoon, and it is a form of worship which is easy therefore observe it, O my Muslim Brother.

48. And also when making wudoo , as Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, If I did not fear to cause hardship to my Ummah I would have ordered them to use the siwaak with every wudoo. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee (no.22) who said: Hasan Saheeh, and Maalik (no.123), Ahmad (4/116), Abu Dawood (no.37) and others. Al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no.390)].

49. And 'Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu' anhaa) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said The siwaak is a means of cleansing the mouth and pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhaaree reports it in mu'allaq form - connected by Ahmad, an-Nasaa'ee, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan].

Ad-Dalk (Rubbing the Water over the Body Parts):

This is part of the wudoo authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said: I saw Rasoolullah (sailallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) when he made wudoo rubbing his toes with his litle finger. [Saheeh as has preceded].

50. Abdullah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu'alaihiwasallam) made wudoo and said Rub in this way. [See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].

51. He (radhiAllaahu'anhu) also narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo with two thirds of a mudd[3] (of water) and rubbed over his forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no.118), and its isnaad is Saheeh - and al-Haakim (1/161) reports it by way of Yahyaa ibn Abi Zaa'idah].

Performing the Wudoo in the Order Mentioned in the Ayaah

As for what is narrated regarding the 'order' as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is nothing to contradict that - and this order is obligatory (waajib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa'eed ibn al Musayyib, 1/64].

As for what is related with regard to the Prophet's wudoo (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:

52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma'd Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) with water for wudoo , so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears - their outsides and insides - and washed each of his feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu Dawood (1/19) with Saheeh isnaad. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnaad is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in 'al-Mukhtaarah'. And al-Albaanee records it in 'as-Saheehah', no.261] .

So this is a proof that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) did not always stick to the regular order - and this is a proof that it is not obligatory - however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.

As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in 'Aun al Ma'bood' ( 1/48): It is used as a proof - that is the aforementioned hadeeth - by him who says that sticking to the regular order in wudoo is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.

The author of 'Aun al Ma'bood' says: This narration is 'shaadh'[4] - and therefore not to be taken in contradiction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.

I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of wudoo which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties - then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aayah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the ahaadeeth - and Allaah Knows best.

Al-Mawaalaat (Washing Each Part Directly After the Previous one - Leaving no Time Gap in Between)

Nothing other than this is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). It is however established that Ibn 'Umar (radhiAllaahu' anhu) urinated within the market, then made wudoo and so washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a Janazzah so he entered the mosque then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported by Maalik (no.72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84). And 'Ataa didn't see anything wrong with leaving such gaps whilst making wudoo and it is the saying of al-Hasan, an-Nakha'ee and the better reported of the two sayings of ash-Shaafi'ee].

Beginning with the Right

That is washing the right hand before the left - and likewise the feet.

53. 'Aaishah (radhiAllaahu 'annaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no.267) and others].

54. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said When you dress and when you make wudoo , then begin with the right. [Abu Dawood (4141), at-Tirmidhee (1766), an-Nasaa'ee (402). Al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh].

Economizing in the Use of Water and not Being Wasteful

55. Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa' or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa' is equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together.)

If you consider this hadeeth well, O my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed of what some people do these days - one of them opening the water tap and making wudoo and sometimes talking to his companion whilst the water is running out - what an excess in wastefulness! So he who does that should fear Allaah and remember this hadeeth and keep it in mind and follow the Sunnah with regard to using the water sparingly and not being wasteful - and here the true following of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) is made clear and the true Muslim's belief. It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim who wishes to make wudoo to have with him a container large enough for a mudd of water - in order to force himself to return to the following of the Sunnah.

The Du'aa After the Wudoo

56. 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alahi wa sallam) said None of you makes wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:

Ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu washhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave andMessenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him - so that he enters by whichever he pleases. [Reported by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169), at-Tirmidhee (no.55), an-Nasaa'ee (no.148), Ibn Maajah (no.470)].

And at-Tirmidhee adds an authentic addition to it:

Allaahumma aj'alnee minat-tawwabeen waj'alnee minal mutatahhireen (O Allaah, make me one of those who constantly repents toYou and of those who purify themselves.) [Declared as Sahih by al-Albaanee].

57. Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)said Whoever makes wudoo then says upon finishing the wudoo:

Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illa anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika (I declare You free from all defects my Lord and all praise belongs to you and I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It is written in a parchment, then sealed and is not opened till Judgement Day. [Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in 'Amal al Yaurn wal-l~ilah, no.30. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

Washing Each Body-Part Once

68. Ibn 'Abbaas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

59. 'Abdullaah ibn Zaid narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Thrice

60. In the hadeeth of'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) recorded by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) washed each of the parts three times.

So from these ahaadeeth it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory - and the second and third washings are Sunnah - and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ['al-Majmoo' of an-Nawawi, 1/229].

The Desirability of Making Wudoo for Each Prayer

Al-Haafiz says in 'al Fath' (1/172) in the question 'Making wudoo without having broken it':

61. Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) says: The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo for every prayer. I said: What had you (the Sahaabah) used to do? He said: One wudoo was sufficient for us till such time as we broke it.

This hadeeth is an evidence that what is meant generally is the obligatory Prayer.

Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that was obligatory upon him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) particularly - then was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the hadeeth of Buraidah - meaning that which Muslim reports - that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) prayed all the Prayers on the Day of Fath with one wudoo and that 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) asked him about that so he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said I did it deliberately. Or it may be that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to do it out of desirability only, then feared that it might be thought to be obligatory and so left it to show the permissibility of that.

I say: The result is that making wudoo for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying all of the Prayers with one wudoo is permissible - and Allaah Knows best.

The One who is not Sure if he has Broken the Wudoo or not Relies upon that which he is Certain of

If he who knows that he has made wudoo then is not sure that he has broken it - then his wudoo remains. And he who knows that he has done that which breaks wudoo and doubts when he has made wudoo thereafter then he does not have wudoo . In each case he relies upon that which he is certain of before that which he has doubt about - and he throws the doubt away. And this is the saying of the great majority of scholars - and it is the saying of Abu Hanifah, ash-Shaafi'ee and Ahmad. ['Al-Mughnee', 1/193, and ~iqh ul Awaaa'ee, 1/56].

62. And the proof for this is what is established from Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) who said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you feels something in his stomach and he isn't sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not - then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharh an-Nawawi, 4/51), 'Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee Sharh ut-Tirmidhee, 1/79].

So the hadeeth is a proof that things remain upon their original state until there is a certainty of a change in that, and doubt does not harm that - so he who is sure of having made wudoo and thinks that he may have broken it, then he remains upon wudoo .

A Man and Woman's Washing from a Single Vessel

63. Ibn 'Abbaas (radhiAllaahu 'anhumaa) narrates that one of the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah then saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) about to take a ghusl from the water remaining - so she informed him that she had made ghusl therefrom - so Rasoolulah said Nothing makes the water impure. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.67), and an-Nasaa'ee (no.326), and at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be hasan saheeh, and Ibn Maajah (no.370)].

Ibn 'Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing in the Sharee'ah to prevent each of them washing with the water remaining from the other - either together or one after the other, and this is the saying of the scholars of the different lands and the great majority of scholars - and the ahaadeeth about it are Mutawaatir. (Al-Istidhkaar, 1/373).

Making Wudoo after Eating Camel Meat

64. Jaabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam): Should I make wudoo because of the meat of sheep? He (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said If you wish make wudoo and if you wish then do not make wudoo. He said: Should I make wudoo from the meat of the camel? He (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said Yes, make wudoo from the meat of the camel. He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said Yes. He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].

Drying the Body Parts after Purification

'Uthman ibn 'Affaan, al- Hasan ibn 'Alee, Anas ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, 'Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak, 'Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya'laa, Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha'bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq, Ibn 'Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi'ee Madhhab in one saying, all say that it is permissible after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts. And their evidence is what 'Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu 'anhaa) reports - she said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wudoo . [Reported by at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be da'eef]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa'ee records it in 'al-Kunaa' with saheeh isnaad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa'eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami', 4706).

65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)]. In az-Zawaa'id it is said: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn 'Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in 'Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb', so its isnaad is da'eef!! - but it is strengthened by the previous hadeeth of 'Aa'ishah to the level of hasan - and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu'anhaa) who described the Prophet's (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim - and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadeeth of Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu 'anhaa) - as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu 'anhaa) "but he refused it" does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh - and Allaah Knows best.

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