SIWAAK is that which the mouth is
brushed with. And it is also called the
MISWAAK, the plural being: SOOK.
And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree
and it is a well-known tree. Abu Hanifah
said: It is the best of the trees whose
twigs are used for brushing the teeth...
smelling of milk. Abu Ziyaad said: From
it is taken there tooth-sticks - from its
twigs and roots - and the best part for
that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading..And
Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot
green tree with many leaves and branches,
having weak wood and growing in hollows
- miswaaks are taken from it, being one
of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak
and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-'Arab,
It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the
siwaak at many different times as is
established from the Prophet (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) that he used to use
the siwaak at every Prayer, and before
reading the Qur'an, and before sleeping
and when waking, and when the breath
changes - whether fasting or not - or
whether at the start of the day or in
the afternoon, and it is a form of worship
which is easy therefore observe it, O
my Muslim Brother.
48. And also when making wudoo , as Abu
Hurairah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) narrates
that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) said, If I did not fear
to cause hardship to my Ummah I would
have ordered them to use the siwaak with
every wudoo. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee
(no.22) who said: Hasan Saheeh, and Maalik
(no.123), Ahmad (4/116), Abu Dawood (no.37)
and others. Al-Albaanee declared it to
be saheeh (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no.390)].
49. And 'Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu' anhaa)
narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) said The siwaak
is a means of cleansing the mouth and
pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhaaree
reports it in mu'allaq form - connected
by Ahmad, an-Nasaa'ee, Ibn Khuzaimah
and Ibn Hibbaan].
is part of the wudoo authentically reported
from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa
sallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said:
I saw Rasoolullah (sailallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) when he made wudoo rubbing his
toes with his litle finger. [Saheeh as
50. Abdullah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu 'anhu)
narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu'alaihiwasallam)
made wudoo and said Rub in this way.
[See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].
51. He (radhiAllaahu'anhu) also narrates
that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) made wudoo with two thirds
of a mudd (of water) and rubbed over his
forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no.118), and
its isnaad is Saheeh - and al-Haakim
(1/161) reports it by way of Yahyaa ibn
for what is narrated regarding the 'order'
as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is
nothing to contradict that - and this order
is obligatory (waajib) and it is said:
Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa'eed ibn al
As for what is related with regard to
the Prophet's wudoo (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) then it has been reported
sometimes out of the regular order. And
the proof is:
52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma'd Yakrib said:
I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) with water for wudoo , so
he washed his hands three times, then
washed his face three times, then washed
his forearms three times, then washed
his mouth and nose three times, then
wiped his head and ears - their outsides
and insides - and washed each of his
feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu
Dawood (1/19) with Saheeh isnaad. Ash-Shaukaanee
(1/1~5) said: Its isnaad is good, and
it is reported by ad-Diyaa in 'al-Mukhtaarah'.
And al-Albaanee records it in 'as-Saheehah',
So this is a proof that he (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) did not always stick
to the regular order - and this is a
proof that it is not obligatory - however,
his sticking to it mostly shows that
it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.
As-Suyooti says as is reported from him
in 'Aun al Ma'bood' ( 1/48): It is used
as a proof - that is the aforementioned
hadeeth - by him who says that sticking
to the regular order in wudoo is not
obligatory as he washed his mouth and
nose after washing his arms.
The author of 'Aun al Ma'bood' says:
This narration is 'shaadh' - and therefore not to
be taken in contradiction to the established
narrations which put the washing of the
mouth and nose before the washing of
I say: The difference of opinion between
the scholars here is with regard to those
parts of wudoo which are Sunnah. As for
the obligatory duties - then they are
according to the order mentioned in the
noble Aayah, and the best thing is to
perform all of the actions in the way
mentioned in the majority of the ahaadeeth
- and Allaah Knows best.
other than this is established from the
Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).
It is however established that Ibn 'Umar
(radhiAllaahu' anhu) urinated within the
market, then made wudoo and so washed his
face and hands and wiped his head, then
he was called to pray over a Janazzah so
he entered the mosque then wiped over his
leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported
by Maalik (no.72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84).
And 'Ataa didn't see anything wrong with
leaving such gaps whilst making wudoo and
it is the saying of al-Hasan, an-Nakha'ee
and the better reported of the two sayings
is washing the right hand before the left
- and likewise the feet.
53. 'Aaishah (radhiAllaahu 'annaa) said:
Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
used to like to begin with the right
in putting on shoes, combing his hair,
in purification and in all of his affairs.
[Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim
(no.267) and others].
54. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu)
narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) said When you dress
and when you make wudoo , then begin
with the right. [Abu Dawood (4141),
at-Tirmidhee (1766), an-Nasaa'ee (402).
Al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh].
Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: The Prophet
(sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to
make wudoo with a mudd (of water) and make
ghusl with a saa' or up to five mudds.
[Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa' is
equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount
of water which is held by the two hands
If you consider this hadeeth well, O
my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed
of what some people do these days - one
of them opening the water tap and making
wudoo and sometimes talking to his companion
whilst the water is running out - what
an excess in wastefulness! So he who
does that should fear Allaah and remember
this hadeeth and keep it in mind and
follow the Sunnah with regard to using
the water sparingly and not being wasteful
- and here the true following of the
Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
is made clear and the true Muslim's belief.
It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim
who wishes to make wudoo to have with
him a container large enough for a mudd
of water - in order to force himself
to return to the following of the Sunnah.
'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radhiAllaahu 'anhu)
said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alahi wa
sallam) said None of you makes
wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:
anlaa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu
washhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasooluhu
(I bear witness that none has the
right to be worshipped except Allaah,
and that Muhammad is His slave andMessenger)
except that all eight Gates of Paradise
are opened for him - so that he enters
by whichever he pleases. [Reported
by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169),
at-Tirmidhee (no.55), an-Nasaa'ee (no.148),
Ibn Maajah (no.470)].
And at-Tirmidhee adds an authentic addition
aj'alnee minat-tawwabeen waj'alnee minal
mutatahhireen (O Allaah,
make me one of those who constantly repents
toYou and of those who purify themselves.)
[Declared as Sahih by al-Albaanee].
57. Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree (radhiAllaahu
'anhu) said Rasoolullah (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam)said Whoever makes
wudoo then says upon finishing the wudoo:
wa bihamdika ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illa
anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika
(I declare You free from all defects
my Lord and all praise belongs to you
and I bear witness that there is none
worthy of worship except You. I seek
Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It
is written in a parchment, then sealed
and is not opened till Judgement Day.
[Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in 'Amal al
Yaurn wal-l~ilah, no.30. Declared as
Saheeh by al-Albaanee].
Ibn 'Abbaas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said:
Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
made wudoo (washing each part) once.
[Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].
'Abdullaah ibn Zaid narrates that the Prophet
(sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo
(washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhaaree
(al Fath) 1/226].
In the hadeeth of'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu
'anhu) recorded by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim,
he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) washed
each of the parts three times.
So from these ahaadeeth it becomes clear
to us that, as is well-known to the large
majority of scholars, washing each body-part
once is obligatory - and the second and
third washings are Sunnah - and it is
better to do likewise following the Sunnah
of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa
sallam) ['al-Majmoo' of an-Nawawi, 1/229].
says in 'al Fath' (1/172) in the question
'Making wudoo without having broken it':
61. Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) says: The
Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
used to make wudoo for every prayer.
I said: What had you (the Sahaabah) used
to do? He said: One wudoo was sufficient
for us till such time as we broke it.
This hadeeth is an evidence that what
is meant generally is the obligatory
Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that
was obligatory upon him (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) particularly - then
was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the
hadeeth of Buraidah - meaning that which
Muslim reports - that he (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) prayed all the Prayers
on the Day of Fath with one wudoo and
that 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) asked
him about that so he (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) said I did it deliberately.
Or it may be that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) used to do it out of desirability
only, then feared that it might be thought
to be obligatory and so left it to show
the permissibility of that.
I say: The result is that making wudoo
for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying
all of the Prayers with one wudoo is
permissible - and Allaah Knows best.
he who knows that he has made wudoo then
is not sure that he has broken it - then
his wudoo remains. And he who knows that
he has done that which breaks wudoo and
doubts when he has made wudoo thereafter
then he does not have wudoo . In each case
he relies upon that which he is certain
of before that which he has doubt about
- and he throws the doubt away. And this
is the saying of the great majority of
scholars - and it is the saying of Abu
Hanifah, ash-Shaafi'ee and Ahmad. ['Al-Mughnee',
1/193, and ~iqh ul Awaaa'ee, 1/56].
62. And the proof for this is what is
established from Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu
'anhu) who said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) said If one of
you feels something in his stomach and
he isn't sure did anything (wind) come
out of it or not - then let him not leave
the mosque until he hears a sound or
finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharh an-Nawawi,
4/51), 'Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee Sharh ut-Tirmidhee,
So the hadeeth is a proof that things
remain upon their original state until
there is a certainty of a change in that,
and doubt does not harm that - so he
who is sure of having made wudoo and
thinks that he may have broken it, then
he remains upon wudoo .
Ibn 'Abbaas (radhiAllaahu 'anhumaa) narrates
that one of the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah
then saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) about to take a ghusl
from the water remaining - so she informed
him that she had made ghusl therefrom -
so Rasoolulah said Nothing makes the
water impure. [Reported by Abu Dawood
(no.67), and an-Nasaa'ee (no.326), and
at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be hasan
saheeh, and Ibn Maajah (no.370)].
Ibn 'Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing
in the Sharee'ah to prevent each of them
washing with the water remaining from
the other - either together or one after
the other, and this is the saying of
the scholars of the different lands and
the great majority of scholars - and
the ahaadeeth about it are Mutawaatir.
Jaabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu)
narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam): Should I make wudoo
because of the meat of sheep? He (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) said If you wish
make wudoo and if you wish then do not
make wudoo. He said: Should I make
wudoo from the meat of the camel? He (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) said Yes, make wudoo
from the meat of the camel. He asked:
May I pray in sheep-pens? He (sallallaahu
'alaihi wa sallam) said Yes. He
asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels?
He (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said
No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].
ibn 'Affaan, al- Hasan ibn 'Alee, Anas
ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen,
'Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak,
'Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya'laa,
Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha'bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq,
Ibn 'Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah,
Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi'ee Madhhab
in one saying, all say that it is permissible
after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts.
And their evidence is what 'Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu
'anhaa) reports - she said: Rasoolullah
(sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth
which he used to dry himself with after
making wudoo . [Reported by at-Tirmidhee
who declared it to be da'eef]. Then al
Ainee states that an-Nasaa'ee records it
in 'al-Kunaa' with saheeh isnaad.
I say: And it has other narrations which
support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh
al-Imam Sa'eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares
the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami',
65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that
the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
made wudoo , then turned up a woollen
cloak he had and wiped his face with
it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)].
In az-Zawaa'id it is said: Its isnaad
I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn
'Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory
as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in 'Taqreeb
ut-Tahdheeb', so its isnaad is da'eef!!
- but it is strengthened by the previous
hadeeth of 'Aa'ishah to the level of
hasan - and Allaah Knows best.
Some others hold it to be makrooh to
dry the body-parts after Purification
and their proof is:
66. What is established from Maimoonah
(radhiAllaahu'anhaa) who described the
Prophet's (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I
brought him a cloth but he refused it.
[Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim - and the word
The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts
is one of the desirable actions as shown
by the hadeeth of Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu
'anhaa) - as for the saying that it is
makrooh then that is not acceptable as
the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu
'anhaa) "but he refused it" does not
amount to the fact that it is makrooh
- and Allaah Knows best.