Celebrations In Islaam
The Eid Prayer and Khutbah

Description of the `Eed Prayer
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Number of Rak`aat
The `Eed prayer consists of two Rak`aat (full prayer units). `Umar (radiAllahu `anhu) reported:
"The travelers' prayer is two Rak`aat; the Adha prayer is two Rak`aat; the Fitr prayer is two Rak`aat; and the Jumu`ah prayer is two Rak`aat; this is their full length as came upon the tongue of Muhammad saws."1

Beginning It
  1. Like any other deed in Islaam, the prayer must be preceded with the true intention. The intention should be present in the heart before starting the prayer.
     
  2. Like any other prayer, the first rak`ah (one prayer unit) must be started with Takbeer ul-ihraam2; this is followed by the opening supplication.
     

Additional Takbeers
  1. The opening supplication is followed by seven Takbeers in the first rak`ah. Likewise, the Takbeer when rising to the second rak`ah is followed by five more Takbeers. `Aa'ishah (radiAllahu `anha) said:
    "Allaah's Messenger saws would say Takbeer in both Fitr and Adha: seven in the first, and five in the second - other than the two Takbeers of rukuu` (bowing)."3

     
         Imaam al-Baghawee commented:
    "This is the opinion of most of the people of knowledge among the Companions and those after them: to say, before reciting Qur'aan, in the first rak`ah of the `Eed prayer, seven Takbeers other than the opening Takbeer, and in the second, five Takbeers other than the Takbeer of rising. This has been reported from Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Alee , and others." 4

     
  2. The Sunnah is to say the Takbeers before the recitation, as in the hadeeth of `Amr Bin Shu`ayb, from his father, from his grandfather (Ibn `Umar radiAllahu `anhu), who said:
    "In the `Eed prayer, Allaah's Messenger saws said seven Takbeers in the first rak`ah, recited (Qur'aan), said the Takbeer and bowed, prostrated himself; then he stood, said five Takbeers, recited, said Takbeer, bowed, and prostrated."5

     
         Ibn ul-Qayyim commented that anything contrary to this is not true.6
     
  3. There are no authentic reports describing whether or not the Prophet saws raised his hands with these additional Takbeers. For this reason, al-Albaanee states:
    "The reports from `Umar and his son do not make this a sunnah. Especially when we know that these reports are not authentic. As for the one from `Umar, it is recorded by al-Bayhaqee with a weak chain. As for his son's, I have not been able to locate it now."7

     
         However, based on various general hadeeths that report the raising of the hands with Takbeer in the regular prayers, some scholars8 allow raising the hands with these additional Takbeers. In this regard, Ibn ul-Qayyim said:
    "Ibn `Umar, who is known to adhere closely to the Sunnah, used to raise his hands with every one of the Takbeers."9

     
         And al-Albaanee commented on a similar issue:
    "One may raise his hands if he believes that Ibn `Umar would not do this without an approval from the Prophet saws."10

     
  4. There are no authentic reports indicating that the people would raise their voice with Takbeer when praying behind the imaam. The Sunnah is to say all thikr secretly, except in specific cases where the contrary was confirmed. This is enforced further in situations where raising the voice would disturb other people's prayer. Therefore, it is not permissible for anyone other than the imaam to raise the voice with Takbeer in the prayer.
     
  5. There is no thikr (mention of Allaah (SWT)) confirmed from the Prophet saws between the `Eed Takbeers. But it is reported that Ibn Mas`ood (^u) said:
    "Between every two Takbeers is a praise of Allaah and a salaah upon the Prophet saws."11
         Ibn ul-Qayyim (r) said:
    "The Prophet saws used to remain silent between every two Takbeers, and nothing is reported from him regarding thikr between them."12

     
  6. The Takbeer is a sunnah (recommended act). Leaving it, whether intentionally or forgetfully, does not invalidate the prayer. There is no difference of opinion on this among the scholars13. However, there is no doubt that anyone who neglects it intentionally would be violating the sunnah of the Prophet saws.
     

The Recitation
  1. After the Takbeers, one should utter ta`awwuth14 and basmalah15.
     
  2. This is followed by reciting al-Faatihah, which is a required pillar in every rak`ah of every prayer.
     
  3. This is followed by reciting Soorat Qaaf (50) in the first rak`at, and Soorat ul-Qamar (54) in the second.16
    Alternatively, one may recite: Surat ul-A`laa (87) in the first, and Soorat ul-Ghaasheeyah (88) in the second.17
    Ibn ul-Qayyim (r) said:
    "Both of these have been authentically reported from the action of the Prophet saws. Nothing else is authentic."18
    There is surely wisdom in reciting these particular soorahs in Eed. Some of this has been discussed by scholars like an-Nawawee19 and ash-Shawkaanee20.
     

The Remainder Of The Prayer
The remainder of the `Eed prayer is performed in the same manner as any other prayer, without any difference21.
Missing The `Eed Prayer
If one misses the `Eed prayer in Jamaa`ah, he must pray two Rak`aat. Imaam al-Bukhaaree (r) headed a section as, "Section: One Who Misses the `Eed Prayer Should Pray Two Rak`aat." And he added that `Ataa' (r) said:
"When one misses the `Eed prayer, he prays two Rak`aat."22

Al-Haafiz Bin Hajar commented on this:
"In this title are two important points:
  1. The permission to make up the `Eed prayer for the one who misses praying it with the Jamaa`ah - whether that happened by compulsion or choice.
     
  2. That it is made-up as two Rak`aat."23
     

     Waliyyullaah ad-Dahlawee (r) said:
"This is the opinion of ash-Shaafi`ee - that if one misses the prayer with the imaam, he should pray two Rak`aat in order to at least attain the virtue of performing the `Eed prayer, despite the fact that he missed the virtue of praying it in Jamaa`ah with the imaam.
     As for the Hanafees, there is no make-up for the `Eed prayer. If one misses it with the imaam, he has totally missed it."24

     Imaam Maalik (r) said:
"In my opinion, anyone who prays the `Eed prayer individually, whether man or woman, should say seven Takbeers in the first rak`ah, before recitation, and five in the second, before recitation."25

     And Ibn Qudaamah (r) said:
"The one who comes late to the `Eed prayer should perform what he missed according to the way that he missed it. This is true for any prayer."26

  1. Ahmad, an-Nasaa`ee, at-Tahaawee in Sharu Ma`aanee 'l-Aathaar, and al-Bayhaqee with an authentic chain of narrators.  - Back to text 
     
  2. The Takbeer of prohibition - thus named because it marks the beginning of the prayer, making it prohibited to do any action not related to prayer.  - Back to text 
     
  3. Abu Daawood, Amad, Ibn Maajah, and al-Bayhaqee with an authentic chain of narrators.  - Back to text 
     
  4. Sharh us-Sunnah 4:309.  - Back to text 
     
  5. Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, and Amad. This is a hasan hadeeth because of its witnesses. See Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel 3:108-112.  - Back to text 
     
  6. Zaad ul-Ma`aad 1:443-444.  - Back to text 
     
  7. Tamaam ul-Minnah 348.  - Back to text 
     
  8. Such as Maalik, Ibn ul-Munthir, and al-Bayhaqee.  - Back to text 
     
  9. Zaad ul-Ma`aad 1:441.  - Back to text 
     
  10. Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz 148.  - Back to text 
     
  11. Recorded by al-Bayhaqee with a good (jayyid) chain. See Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel 3:114.  - Back to text 
     
  12. Zaad ul-Ma`aad.  - Back to text 
     
  13. Al-Mughnee 2:244 by Ibn Qudaamah.  - Back to text 
     
  14. A`uththu billaahi min ash-Shaytaan ir-Rajeem, which means: "I seek refuge in Allaah from the Outcast Devil".  - Back to text 
     
  15. Bismillah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem, which means "In the name of Allah the Merciful, the Bestower of mercy".  - Back to text 
     
  16. Muslim, an-Nasaa`ee, at-Tirmithee, and Ibn Maajah, from the report of Abu Waaqid al-Laythee (radiAllahu `anhu).  - Back to text 
     
  17. Muslim, at-Tirmithee, an-Nasaa`ee, and Ibn Maajah, reported from al-Nu`maan Bin Basheer (radiAllahu `anhu).  - Back to text 
     
  18. Zaad ul-Ma`aad 1:443.  - Back to text 
     
  19. Sharu Muslim 6:182.  - Back to text 
     
  20. Nayl ul-Awtaar 3:297.  - Back to text 
     
  21. It is recommended to review the excellent book: Sifatu salaat in-Nabee by al-Albaanee.  - Back to text 
     
  22. Saheeh ul-Bukhaaree.  - Back to text 
     
  23. Fath ul-Baaree 2:550.  - Back to text 
     
  24. Sharhu Taraajimi Abwaab il-Bukhaaree 80.  - Back to text 
     
  25. Al-Muwaatta' 592.  - Back to text 
     
  26. Al-Mughnee 2:212.  - Back to text 
     
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