In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise and thanks be to Allah! We praise and thank Him, ask Him for His Help and Forgiveness, and we seek refuge in Allah from the evils of our souls and the mischiefs of our deeds. He whom Allah guides will not be misled, and he whom Allah misleads will never have a guide. I testify that there is no deity but Allah alone, without any partners, and that Muhammad is His 'Abd (worshiper) and Messenger.(1) To proceed,
Sheikh Al-Islaam, the famous amongst the famous, protector of As-Sunnah, suppressor of Al-Bid'ah (innovation in Ad-Deen), Ahmad bin Abd Al-Haleem bin Taymiyah (RA) was asked the following about Allah's (AWJ) saying,
"Oh mankind! worship your Lord." [Al-Baqarah:21]
What is Al-'Ibaadah (the worship)? What are its branches? Is the whole of Ad-Deen encompassed in it? What is the reality of Al-'Uboodiyah? And is it the highest attainable position in this world and in the Hereafter or if there is any rank better than it? Please expound upon that.
Ibn Taymiyah (RA) replied,
Al-'Ibaadah is a term which comprises everything that Allah (SWT) loves and approves of from the apparent and hidden sayings and deeds. In this context As-Salaat (prayer); Az-Zakaat (charity tax); As-Siyaam (fasting); Al-Hajj (pilgrimage); truthfulness in speech; trustworthiness; kindness to parents; maintaining kind relationship with relatives; fulfilling pledges; enjoining the good and forbidding the evil; striving against Al-Kuffaar (the faith rejectors) and the hypocrites; beneficience to the neighbor, the orphan, the poor, the wayfarer, and the owned beings whether human or animal; Ad-Du'aa (supplication); Adth-Dthikr (remembrance of Allah); Al-Qiraa-ah (recitation of Al-Quraan); and the like are all part of Al-'Ibaadah.
Likewise, loving Allah (AWJ) and His Messenger (SAAWS), apprehension before Allah and returning repentantly to Him, sincerity in Ad-Deen for Him, patience with His Ordainment, thankfulness for His Bounties, contentment with His Decree, dependence on Him, hope for His Mercy, fear of His Punishment and the like are also part of Al-'Ibaadah due to Allah (SWT).
In fact worshiping Allah (AWJ) is the beloved purpose before Him, and which contents Him, it being the reason for which He (SWT) created the creation. As Allah (AWJ) said,
"And I created not the Jinns and men except that they should worship Me (Alone)." [Adth-Dthaariyaat:56]
With this call to Al-'Ibaadah He (SWT) sent all the Messengers as when Prophet Nooh (AS) said to his people,
"Worship Allah, you have no other deity but Him." [Al-A'raaf:59]
And similarly Hood, Saalih, Shou'eyb (AS) and other Prophets said this to their people. Allah Ta'aala (the Exalted) said,
"And verily We have sent amongst every nation a messenger (with the command): 'Worship Allah (Alone) and avoid all false deities.' Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified." [An-Nahl: 36]
He (SWT) also said.
"And We did not send any messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed unto him (saying): 'There is none who has the right to be worshiped but I (Allah), so worship Me (Alone and none else).'" [Al-Anbiyaa:25];
"Truly, your Nation (Deen of Islaam) is one Nation and I am your Lord, therefore worship Me (Alone)." [Al-Anbiyaa:92];
also He (SWT) said in another Aayah (verse),
"O (you) Messengers! Eat of the good things and do righteous deeds; verily I am well-acquainted with all that you do. And verily! This your Nation is one Nation and I am your Lord, therefore seek protection (from My Punishment by warding off evil)." [ Al Moo-minoon: 51-52]
Allah (SWT) has made Al-'Ibaadah imperative on His Messenger until death. He (AWJ) said.
"And worship your Lord (O Muhammad) until there comes unto you the Hour that is certain (i.e. death)." [Al-Hijr:99]
By this qualifying distinction (Al-'Ibaadah) Allah (AWJ) described His Angels and Prophets. He (AWJ) said,
"To Him belongs whosoever is in the heavens and the earth. And those who are in His very presence (the Angels) disdain not to worship Him, nor do they ever weary in this. They exalt Him night and day (and) they never slacken (to do so)." [Al-Anbiyaa:l 9 - 20]; and,
"Surely those who are in the very presence of your Lord disdain not to worship Him; they celebrate His praises, and prostrate before Him." [Al-A'raaf:206]
Allah (SWT) disgraced those who are disdainful of Al-'Ibaadah by saying,
"And your Lord said: 'Invoke Me, and I will respond to your (invocation). Verily! those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!'" [Al-Moo-min:60]
Allah (SWT) also described the best of His creatures with Al-'Uboodiyah to Him bv saying.
"As to the righteous, they shall drink of a cup containing a mixture of Kaafoor. A fountain where 'Ibaad-u-Allah (worshipers of Allah) do drink, making it flow in unstinted abundance." [Ad-Dahr:5-6] and
"And 'Ibaad-u-Ar-Rahmaan (the worshipers of the Most Beneficent; Allah) are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the foolish address them, they say 'Peace (on you)!"' [Al-Furaaan:63]
And when Ash-Shaitaan (Satan) said.
"O my Lord! Because You misled me I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on earth and I shall mislead them all. Except Your chosen, guided 'Ibaad among them." [Al-Hijr: 39-40]
Then Allah (SWT) replied
"Certainly, you have no authority over 'Ibaad-ee (My worshipers), except those who follow you of the wrong-doers." [AI-Hijr:42]
Also, in describing the Angels with Al-'Uboodiyah He (AWJ) said,
"And they say; The Beneficient (Allah) has begotten children.' Exalted be He! Those whom they call children, (i.e. the Angels), are but honored 'Ibaad. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act by His Command. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe due to their apprehension of Him." [Al Anbiya:26 - 28]
He (SWT) also said,
"And they say: 'The Beneficient (Allah) has begotten children.' Indeed you have brought forth a terrible thing. Whereby almost the heavens are torn and the earth is split assunder and the mountains fall in ruins. That you ascribed children to the Beneficient (Allah). But it is not suitable for (the Majesty of) the Beneficient (Allah) that He should beget children. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Beneficient (Allah) as a slave. Verily He knows their number and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone, on the Day of Resurrection." [Mariyam:88 - 95]
Concerning 'Eesa (AS) (Jesus), to whom the divinity and sonship to the deity were falsely ascribed, Allah (SWT) said,
"He ('Eesa) was no more ~han a 'Abd. We granted Our Favour to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel." [Az-Zukhruf:59]
This is why the Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) said in the authentic Hadeeth, "Do not flatter me as the Christians have flattered 'Eesa, son of Mariyam, for I am only a 'Abd of Allah; therefore say: 'Abd-u-Allah (the worshiper of Allah) Wa Rasool-u-hu (and His Messenger)." (1)
Allah (SWT) further attributed Al-'Uboodiyah to him (SAAWS) in his most perfect states; He (SWT) said concerning Al-Israa (the Night Journey),
"Glorified be He (Allah) Who took His 'Abd (Muhammad SAAWS) for a journey by night from the Sacred Masjid (of Makkah) to the Farthest Masjid (in Jerusalem), the neighborhood whereof We have blessed that We might show him (Muhammad SAAWS) of Our Signs. Verily He (Allah) is the All Hearer, the All-Seer." [Al-Israa (Bani Israa-eel):1]
And He (SWT) said concerning the conveyance of revelation,
"So did (Jibreel) reveal to His (Allah's) 'Abd what has been revealed (then)." [An-Najm: 10]
Also conceming the Da'wah (invitation to Islaam), He (SWT) said.
"And when 'Abd-u-Allah (the worshiper of Allah; Muhammad SAAWS) stood up, calling unto Him (Allah Alone) they gathered against him (SAAWS) and almost suppressed him." [Al-Jinn:19]
And regarding the challenge (to those who doubted the Prophet's (SAAWS) mission), He (SWT) said.
"And if you are ln doubt concerning that which We have sent down to Our 'Abd (Muhammad SAAWS), then produce a Surah (chapter of Al-Quraan) the like thereof." [Al-Baqarah:23]
Therefore, all of Ad-Deen is included in Al-'Ibaadah. Also, it has been confirmed in As-Saheeh (1) that when Jibreel (AS) came to the Prophet (SAAWS) in the guise of a bedouin to ask him about Al-Islaam, he (SAAWS) said, "Al-Islaam is that you testify that there is none worthy of being worshiped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and you establish As-Salaat, pay Az-Zakaat, observe the fast of Ramadhaan, and perform the Pilgrimage to the House if you are able to bear the journey."
He (Jibreel) said, "What is then Al-Eemaan?" Rasool Allah (SAAWS) replied, "That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Judgement, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree to good and evil.
He (Jibreel) said, "What is then Al-Ihsaan?" Rasool Allah (SAAWS) replied, "That you worship Allah as if you see Him, for though you do not see Him, verily, He sees you."
Rasool-Allah (SAAWS) remarked at the end of the Hadeeth, "This was Jibreel. He came to instruct you in your Deen." Thus, he (SAAWS) made all of this part of Ad-Deen.
Ad-Deen includes submission and humility. Subjecting a person to "Deen" means (in Arabic) that he was humbled and then became filled with humility. When it is said that somebody "Yadeen" Allah (SWT) or "Yadeen" for Allah (SWT), it means to "owe allegiance" to Him (AWJ), that is, to worship Allah (AWJ), obey Him, and submit to Him. Therefore, Deen-u-Allah is the worship of Him (AWJ), obedience to Him, and the submission to Him (SWT).
Al-'Ibaadah in its original meaning is: being subdued; as a rough road is made smooth after paving.
Al-'Ibaadah which we are commanded to perforrn includes the meaning of humility and love, it contains extreme humility before Allah (SWT) together with the extreme love for Him (AWJ). The uppermost level of love is the extreme adoration (Tatayum) and its lowermost level is the interest, because the heart is first interested in the beloved. After the interest comes the affection, then the love, and finally the extreme adoration. In Arabic "Taym-u-Allah" (the adorer of Allah) is used to mean "Abd-u-Allah" (the worshiper of Allah) because the adorer is the one who yields completely to his lover.
One who submits to someone with hatred is not worshiping him. And one who loves someone without submitting to him is likewise not worshiping him; this is like a man who loves his son and friends. Therefore, neither love nor submission alone are sufficient in worshiping Allah (SWT). Allah (AWJ) must be loved most by Al-'Abd and He (SWT) must be the greatest of all in his sight. Nothing deserves complete love and submission except Allah (AWJ). It is a futile love when anything has been loved for other than the sake of Allah (SWT). And whatever has been highly regarded without it being by the Command of Allah, its glorification is rejected.
Allah (SWT) said.
"Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives,
your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you
fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you
than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and Fighting in His Cause;
then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the rebellious folk." [At-Tawbah:24]
Thus, the essence of love should be due to Allah and His Messenger, so too with the obedience. For the obedience is due to Allah (AWJ) and His Messenger, and pleasing is due to Allah and His Messenger,
"But it is more fitting that they should please Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAAWS) if they are (true) believers." [At-Tawbah:62]
Also, (contentment with) the provision (from Allah and His Messenger) is due to Allah (AWJ) and His Messenger (SAAWS):
"If only they had been contented with what Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAAWS) gave them." [At-Tawbah:59]
As for Al-'Ibaadah and that which relates to it, such as reliance, fear, etc., they should not be to any except to Allah (SWT) Alone. Allah Ta'aala said.
"Say: O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): 'Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah.' Then if they turn away, say: 'Bear witness that we are Muslims.'" [Aal 'Imraan:64] Allah Ta'aala said,
"If only they had been contented with what Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAAWS) gave them and had said: 'Allah is Sufficient for us. Allah and His Messenger will give us of His Bounty. We implore Allah (to enrich us)."' [At-Tawbah:59]
Thus the distribution of provision is the right of Allah and His Messenger as He (AWJ) said.
"And whatsoever the Messenger provides you with, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you from, abstain (from it) and fear Allah. Verily Allah is severe in punishment." [Al-Hashr:7]
As for the sufficer, it is Allah (SWT) alone, as He (AWJ) says.
"Those unto whom men said: 'Verily, the people have gathered against you (a great army) therefore fear them.' But it (only) increased them in Faith. And they said: 'For us Allah is sufficient, and He is the Best Disposer (for us).'" [Aal 'Imraan: 173]; and
"O Prophet (Muhammad SAAWS)! Sufficient for you is Allah and (also for) those who follow you of the believers." [Al-Anfaal:64]
That is, sufficient for you (Muhammad) and sufficient for those believers who followed you is Allah (AWJ). Whoever thought that the meaning is: the sufficer for you (Muhammad) are Allah and the believers together, is surely making a tremendous error. We explained this in a different book (1).
Also, Allah Ta'aala said,
Is not Allah Sufficient for His 'Abd? [Az Zumar:36]
The meaning of this is that the term 'Abd refers to the one who has been subdued by Allah (AWJ) so that He (SWT) humbled, administered, and managed him.
In this respect all creatures are actually 'Ibaad (pl. of 'Abd) of Allah (SWT) -- the upright as well as the impudent, the believers and the unbelievers, the Heaven-dwellers and the Hell-dwellers -- for He (AWJ) is the Lord of them all and their Owner. They cannot deviate from His Will, His Omnipotence, and His Perfect Words, for no man, upright or impudent, can violate Them. Whatever He (AWJ) willed will be, even though they might have not willed that. And whatever they willed will not be, unless He (SWT) has already willed it. As Allah Ta'aala says:
Do they seek other than Deen-u-Allah? -- While all that is in the heavens and the earth have surrendered to Him willingly or unwillingly. And to Him shall all be returned. [Aal 'Imraan:83]
Verily, He (SWT) is the Lord of all beings, their Creator, the Provider of their livelihood, the One bestowing life unto them and the One causing death to them, the fluctuator of their hearts, the disposer of their affairs. There is no lord for them but He (AWJ), no owner, no creator for them except He (AWJ) whether they admit it or deny it, and whether they recognize it or they are ignorant of it. But the faithful believers recognize it and believe in it. Unlike the one who is ignorant about it, or denies it and is arrogant towards his Lord, neither admitting nor submitting to Him (SWT), although he knows that Allah (AWJ) is his Lord and His Creator.
For knowing the truth but being too arrogant to accept it and furthermore to then deny it, is a great torment to man, as Ta'aala said, And they denied them (Allah's signs) unjustly and arrogantly, though their souls were convinced thereof. So see what was the end of the mischief makers. [An-Naml:14]; and Ta'aala said,
Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognize him (Muhammad SAAWS) as they recognize their sons. But verily, a party of them knowingly conceal the truth (i.e. the attributes of Muhammad SAAWS which are written in the Torah and Gospel)." [Al-Baqarah: 146];
and Ta'aala said,
It is not you (Muhammad SAAWS) that they deny, but it is the Signs of Allah that the transgressors deny. [Al-An'aam:33]
Therefore, if Al-'Abd knew that Allah (AWJ) is his Lord and his Creator, and that he is poor without Him and in need of Him (AWJ), then he would recognize Al-'Uboodiyah due to the Lordship of Allah. Such an 'Abd would ask of his Lord, beseech Him and rely on Him (AWJ). Nevertheless, he still might obey His Command or he might disobey It, and he still might worship Him (AWJ) and might worship Ash-Shaitaan (Satan) and idols. This type of Al-'Uboodiyah allows for no distinction between that of the Heaven-dwellers and that of the Hell-dwellers. With this type of Al-'Uboodiyah a man does not become a believer, as Ta'aala said,
And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners (unto Him). [Yoosuf: 106]
Indeed, those pagans (of Arabia) used to admit that Allah (AWJ) is their Creator while worshiping other than Him. Allah (SWT) said,
And verily, if you ask them: 'Who created the heavens and the earth?' Surely they will say: 'Allah' (has created them). [Az-Zumar:38]; and
Say: 'Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know!' They will say, 'To Allah!' Say: 'Will you not then remember?' Say: 'Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne?' They will say, '(That belongs) to Allah,' Say: 'Will you not then fear Allah.' Say: 'In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything and He protects (all), while against Him there is no protector if you know?' They will say, '(It belongs) to Allah,' Say: 'How then are you bewitched (deny the truth)?' [Al-Moo-minoon: 84-89]
Most of those who speak about The Truth and witness it do not witness except this very truth, the universal truth, in which the believer and the disbeliever, the upright and the impudent, are common and they witness it together. Even Iblees (Satan) admitted this truth, as well as did the Hell dwellers. Iblees said:
My Lord! Give me then respite till the Day they (the dead) are resurrected. [Saad:79] and he also said:
O my Lord! Because You misled me I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on earth and I shall mislead them all. [AI-Hijr 39]; and
By Your Might then I will surely mislead them all, [Saad:82]; and
Do You see this one whom You have honored above me, if You respite me (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely cut the roots of his offspring (by sending them astray), all but a few! [Al-Israa:62]
And there are many similar addresses where he (Iblees) confesses that Allah (SWT) is his Lord and his Creator and the Creator of all others. Similarly, the dwellers of the Hellfre will have said:
They will say: 'Our Lord! Our misfortune overwhelmed us and we were (an) erring people.' [Al-Moo-minoon:106];
and Ta'aala said:
If you could see when they (the disbelievers) will be detained in front of their Lord! He will say: 'Is not this (Resurrection and the taking of the accounts) the truth?' They will confirm: 'Yes, by our Lord!' [Al An'aam:30]
Thus, whoever limits himself to this (universal) truth, and just recognizing it alone, but does not establish what he was commanded to do of the religious truth - which is worshiping Him and which is related to His Deity and the obedience to His (SWT) Command and the command of His Messenger - he will be of the same kind as Iblees and the Hell-dwellers. Moreover, if he thought that he is one of Allah's elite and one of the possessors of the Knowledge (of the Unseen) and the Realization (of the Truth), who believe that the legislated Command and Prohibition do not hold for them, he will then be amongst the worst rejectors of faith and the atheists.
And whosoever thought that "Al-Khidr (1) and others like him were not subjected to the Command because they have witnessed the Will," his saying is one of the worst sayings of the rejectors of (faith in) Allah and His Messenger. He will remain as such (a Kaafir) until he fulfills the second type of meaning of Al-'Abd, this is Al-'Abd who is a worshiper. He should be worshiping Allah and not worshiping other than Him -- obeying His Command and the command of His Messengers, becoming loyal to the believing pious allies of Allah (SWT) and disowning His (SWT) enemies.
This 'Ibaadah is related to the attribution of the sole deity to Allah Ta'aala. That is why the theme of At Tawheed is: "Laa Ilaaha llla Allah," i.e. "There is none worthy of being worshiped but Allah." This stands in contrast to those who admit to Allah's Lordship but do not worship Him (SWT) or they worship some other deities along side Him (AWJ). In fact, the Ilaah (deity) is that which is deified by the heart with perfect love and glorification, with exaltations and respectfulness, with fear and hope, and the like. This kind of Al-'Ibaadah is what Allah likes and approves of, and by which He described His chosen 'Ibaad, and with which He sent His Messengers.
As for the other meaning of Al-'Abd, the subdued, regardless whether one admits that (status) or denies it, it is a meaning which refers to both the believer and the non-believer.
By differentiating between these two types (of 'Abd) we can recognize the difference between the religious realities, on the one hand, and the universal realities on the other. The religious realities are embodied within Al-'Ibaadah due to Allah (SWT), His Deen, and His legislated Command - the realities which are beloved and approved by Him, and whose people He (Allah) grants His Allegiance to and favors them with His Jannah (Paradise). The universal realities are those in which the believer and non-believer, the upright and impudent are common.
And whoever is satisfied with the universal realities but does not follow the religious realities, he would be amongst the followers of the cursed Iblees and the rejectors of the Lord of the Worlds. And anyone who is satisfied with them (the religious realities) in certain matters but not in others, or in a certain situation but not in another, or in a certain circumstance but not in another, his Eemaan and his allegiance to Allah (SWT) will diminish as much as the religious realities have been diminished. This is a serious situation in which many erring persons were mistaken, and there were so many confused seekers (of the truth) that even amongst the great Sheikhs who claim the realization (of the truth), the Tawheed, and the knowledge, there was an enormous number who slipped due to it. No one can count their number except Allah (SWT) Who knows the concealed and revealed matter.
Sheikh Abd Al-Qaader (RA) (1) had pointed to this matter, as was reported upon him. He clarified that, "Many people when they reached the subject of Al-Qadhaa (the Divine Decree) and Al-Qadar (the Divine Measure) hold back. But not me. A window has been opened in it for me. I fought the measures of the Truth by the Truth for the Truth. The (real) man is he who is in strife with Al-Qadar (the Measure), not he who conforms with Al-Qadar (the Measure)."
What has been mentioned by the Sheikh (RA) is that which Allah (SWT) had commanded, and (also what) His Rasool (SAAWS) commanded. But many people erred in it. Those who erred might witness that which has been measured for one of them as to insurrections and sins, or that which has been measured for others as to insurrections and sins, even if it is Kufr. They witness (or accept) that erring as occuring by the Will of Allah and by His Qadhaa and Qadar (His Decree and Measure), and as being included in the virtue of His Lordship and the requirement of His Will. They think that submitting to sin and conforming with it and accepting it, etc. is a Deen, a straight path, and a 'Ibadah. In this they are similar to the polytheists who said:
If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in Al-'Ibaadah) with Him nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will). [Al-An'aam: 148]; and they said:
Shall we feed those whom, if Allah willed, He (Himself) would have fed? [Ya Seen: 47];
If it had been the Will of the Most Beneficient (Allah) we should not have worshiped them. [Az-Zukhruf:20]
If they were truly rightly guided they would know that we have been commanded to be contented with Al-Qadar (the Measure of Allah) and be patient with its injunction only in the calamities which afflict us such as poverty, sickness, and fear. Allah Ta'aala said:
No calamity can occur but with the leave of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart (aright). [At-Taghaabun:11]
Some of the righteous predecessors said about this: "It is the man who was afflicted with a calamity, but he knows it is from Allah (AWJ) and therefore contentedly accepted it."
Allah Ta'aala said:
No misfortune can happen on earth or in yourselves but it is recorded in a Scripture before We bring it forth into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah. In order that you may not be sad over matters that you fail to get, nor rejoice because of that which has been given to you. [Al-Hadeed:22-23]
It is reported in the Saheehein (1) upon the Prophet (SAAWS) who said:
"Adam and Musa held a disputation. Musa said: 'You are Adam whom Allah created with His Hand, into whom He breathed by His Spirit, to whom He made the Angels prostrate, and whom He taught the names of everything, so why have you expelled us and yourself from Al-Jannah(the Paradise)?' Adam replied, 'And you are Musa whom Allah favored with His Message and His Words, have you not found that it had been written on me before I was created?' He (Musa) said: 'Yes, indeed"' Then he (Rasool Allah SAAWS) said: "So Adam got the better of Musa in the argument." (2)
Adam did not prove his argument against Musa by means of Al-Qadar (the Measure), thinking that the sinner can use Al-Qadar (the Measure) as an argument. Neither a Muslim nor any sane man would say that. If it were an excuse, it would be an excuse for Iblees as well as for Nooh's people, Hood's people, and every Kaafir.
Neither did Musa blame Adam for the sin itself, for Adam did repent to his Lord and was then (forgiven and) gained favor and was guided by Him (AWJ). But he blamed him for the calamity which afflicted them because of the sin; that is why he said to Adam, "Why did you have us and yourself expelled out of Al-Jannah (the Paradise)?" Adam thus replied, "This had been written on me before I was created."
So the action and the calamity resulting from it were pre-measured, and what has been pre-measured of calamity one should submit to. This is the complement to the acceptance of Allah as Lord.
2) Sheikh Al-lslaam Ibn Taymiyah detailed this subject in his book "Al-lhtijaaj bi Al-Qadar." This book has been verified by Al-Muhaddith As-Sheikh Muhammad Naasir Ad-Deen Al Albaani