Concerning the Divine Decree and Measure
Sheikh Abd Al-Qaader (RA) (1) had pointed to this matter, as was reported upon him. He clarified that, "Many people when they reached the subject of Al-Qadhaa (the Divine Decree) and Al-Qadar (the Divine Measure) hold back. But not me. A window has been opened in it for me. I fought the measures of the Truth by the Truth for the Truth. The (real) man is he who is in strife with Al-Qadar (the Measure), not he who conforms with Al-Qadar (the Measure)."
What has been mentioned by the Sheikh (RA) is that which Allah (SWT) had commanded, and (also what) His Rasool (SAAWS) commanded. But many people erred in it. Those who erred might witness that which has been measured for one of them as to insurrections and sins, or that which has been measured for others as to insurrections and sins, even if it is Kufr. They witness (or accept) that erring as occuring by the Will of Allah and by His Qadhaa and Qadar (His Decree and Measure), and as being included in the virtue of His Lordship and the requirement of His Will. They think that submitting to sin and conforming with it and accepting it, etc. is a Deen, a straight path, and a 'Ibadah. In this they are similar to the polytheists who said:
If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in Al-'Ibaadah) with Him nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will). [Al-An'aam: 148]; and they said:
Shall we feed those whom, if Allah willed, He (Himself) would have fed? [Ya Seen: 47];
If it had been the Will of the Most Beneficient (Allah) we should not
have worshiped them. [Az-Zukhruf:20]
If they were truly rightly guided they would know that we have been commanded to be contented with Al-Qadar (the Measure of Allah) and be patient with its injunction only in the calamities which afflict us such as poverty, sickness, and fear. Allah Ta'aala said:
No calamity can occur but with the leave of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart (aright). [At-Taghaabun:11]
Some of the righteous predecessors said about this: "It is the man who was afflicted with a calamity, but he knows it is from Allah (AWJ) and therefore contentedly accepted it."
Allah Ta'aala said:
No misfortune can happen on earth or in yourselves but it is recorded
in a Scripture before We bring it forth into existence. Verily, that is
easy for Allah. In order that you may not be sad over matters that you
fail to get, nor rejoice because of that which has been given to you.
It is reported in the Saheehein (1) upon the Prophet (SAAWS) who said:
"Adam and Musa held a disputation. Musa said: 'You are Adam whom Allah created with His Hand, into whom He breathed by His Spirit, to whom He made the Angels prostrate, and whom He taught the names of everything, so why have you expelled us and yourself from Al-Jannah(the Paradise)?' Adam replied, 'And you are Musa whom Allah favored with His Message and His Words, have you not found that it had been written on me before I was created?' He (Musa) said: 'Yes, indeed"' Then he (Rasool Allah SAAWS) said: "So Adam got the better of Musa in the argument." (2)
Adam did not prove his argument against Musa by means of Al-Qadar (the Measure), thinking that the sinner can use Al-Qadar (the Measure) as an argument. Neither a Muslim nor any sane man would say that. If it were an excuse, it would be an excuse for Iblees as well as for Nooh's people, Hood's people, and every Kaafir.
Neither did Musa blame Adam for the sin itself, for Adam did repent to his Lord and was then (forgiven and) gained favor and was guided by Him (AWJ). But he blamed him for the calamity which afflicted them because of the sin; that is why he said to Adam, "Why did you have us and yourself expelled out of Al-Jannah (the Paradise)?" Adam thus replied, "This had been written on me before I was created."
So the action and the calamity resulting from it were pre-measured, and what has been pre-measured of calamity one should submit to. This is the complement to the acceptance of Allah as Lord.
2) Sheikh Al-lslaam Ibn Taymiyah detailed this subject in his book "Al-lhtijaaj bi Al-Qadar." This book has been verified by Al-Muhaddith As-Sheikh Muhammad Naasir Ad-Deen Al Albaani
As for the sins, Al-'Abd should not be sinful, but if he does sin he should ask forgiveness and should repent. He should repent from the faults and should be patient with the calamities. Allah Ta'aala said:
So be patient (O Muhammad SAAWS). Verily the Promise of Allah is true, and ask forgiveness for your fault. [Al-Moo-min:55]
But if you remain patient and pious, not the least harm will their cunning do to you. [Aal 'Imraan: 120];
But if you persevere patiently and ward off evil. Indeed, these are the things which you should hold fast to. [Aal 'Imraan:186];
and Yoosuf (AS) said:
Verily, he who fears Allah and is patient, then surely Allah makes not the reward of the good-doers to be lost. [Yoosuf:90]
As to the sins of Al-'Ibaad, Al-'Abd in the matters of sins should enjoin the right and fordid the evil with all his potential. He should make Jihaad Fee Sabeel-Ellah (struggle in the Cause of Allah AWJ) against the Kuffaar and the hypocrites; he should have allegiance with Allah's allies and take for an enemy Allah's (SWT) enemies; and he should love for Allah and hate for Allah, as Allah (SWT) said,
"O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as friends, offering them (your) love even though they have disbelieved in that truth which has come to you, and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad SAAWS) and yourselves (from your home-land) (only) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Way and to seek My Good Pleasure (then take not these disbelievers as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am fully aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the straight Path. Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you for evil and they desire that you should disbelieve. Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection (against Allah). He will judge between you. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.
Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibraaheem and those with him, when they said to their people: 'Verily, we are disowning you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we have rejected you, and there has arisen between us and you hostility and hatred for ever, -- until you believe in Allah Alone.' [Al-Mumtahanah: 1-4];
You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making
friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAAWS)
even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers or
their kindred (people). For such only He has written Faith in their hearts
and strengthened them with spirit (proofs and guidance) from Himself.
Shall We then treat the submitting Muslims the same as the criminals? [Al-Qalam:35]; and
Shall We treat those who believe and do good deeds as those who do mischief on earth? Or shall We treat those who ward off evil the same as the wicked? [Saad:28]; and
Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do good deeds, -- in their present life and after their death? Worst is the judgment that they make. [Al-Jaathiyah:21]; and
Not alike are the blind and the seeing. Not are (alike) the darkness
and the light. Nor are (alike) the shade and the sun's full heat. Nor
are (alike) the living and the dead. Verily, Allah makes whom He wills
to hear, but you cannot make to hear those who are in the graves.
Allah puts forth a parable -- a (slave) man belonging to many partners (like those who worship others along with Allah) disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master, (like those who worship Allah Alone), are those two equal in comparison? [Az-Zumar:29]; and
Allah puts foward the example (of two men), one, a slave under the possession of another, he has no power of any sort, and (the other), a man on whom We have bestowed a good provision from Ourselves, and he spends thereof secretly and openly. Can they be equal? (By no means not.) Praise be to Allah. Nay! Most of them know not. And Allah puts foward (another) example of two men, one of them dumb, who has no power over anything, and he is a burden to his master, whichever way he directs him, he brings no good. Is such a man equal with one who commands justice, and is himself on a Straight Path? [An-Nahl:75-76]; and
Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the companions of Paradise.
It is the companions of Paradise that will be successful. [Al-Hashr:20]
In these and similar Ayaat, Allah (SWT) makes a distinction between the
people of right and falsehood, the people of obedience and disobedience,
the people of uprightness and licentiousness, the people of guidance and
misguidance, the people of transgression and righteousness, and the
people of truthfulness and deceit.
Therefore, anyone who witnesses the universal truth without the religious truth will hold equal all these types of people whom Allah (SWT) has made an ultimate distinction between. This reconciliation will eventually conduce him to even reconcile between Allah (AWJ) and the idols, as Allah (SWT) said about this type of people.
By Allah, we were truly in a manifest error. When we held you (false deities) as equals (in Al-'Ibaadah) with the Lord of the Worlds. [Ash-Shu'araa:97-98]
They eventually reach the point where they reconcile between Allah (AWJ) and every existing being. And they considered all that which He (AWJ) deserves of 'Ibaadah and obedience as being due to every existing created thing since they made His (AWJ) existence the same as the existence of the created things. This is of the most horrifying Kufr and atheism towards the Lord of all the beings. They reach by their Kufr the point where they do not bear witness that they are 'Ibaad-u-Allah, neither by the meaning of the subdued ones nor by the meaning of the worshiping ones. They witness that they themselves are the Truth as has been declared by their false idols, e.g. Ibn 'Arabee who wrote "Al-Fousous," and other slandering atheists such as Ibn Sab'een and his like. They even witness that they are simultaneously the worshipers and the ones being worshiped.
This, indeed, is not the witnessing of the truth, neither the universal one nor the religious one, but it is rather a going astray and a blindness from witnessing the universal truth, for they made the existence of the Creator the same as that of the created. They made every good and bad quality as an attribute to both the Creator and the created, for they consider the existence of the former as being the same as the existence of the latter. But the believers in Allah (SWT) and His Messengers, both commoner and elite, are the people of the Quraan, as the Prophet (SAAWS) said, "Verily, Allah has (favorite) people amongst mankind." He was asked, "Who are they? O Messenger of Allah." He replied, "The people of Al Quraan, they are people of Allah and His elite." (1)
These people know that Allah (AWJ) is the Lord, the Owner, and the Creator of everything. And that the Creator is different from the created being. He (SWT) is neither incarnated in the being nor combined with him, nor is His (SWT) existence the same as the being's existence. Indeed, the Christians were not declared by Allah (AWJ) as Kuffaar (unbelievers) except for that they believed in the incarnation and combination of Allah (SWT) with Al-Maseeh (Jesus AS). So how about those who made this true about every creature? Yet, they know fully well that Allah (SWT) ordered obedience to Him (AWJ) and obedience to His Messengers, and that Allah (AWJ) does not like corruption nor approves Al-Kufr for His 'Ibaad. And all the creation ought to worship Him (SWT) so that they obey His commands, and ask for His aid to fulfill that; as He (AWJ) said in the Opening of the Scripture:
It is You we worship and it is You we ask for help. [Al-Faatihah:5]
As aspects of worshiping and obeying Him (SWT) are the commanding of good and forbidding of evil as much as possible, and the Jihaad Fee Sabeel-Ellah (the struggle in the Cause of Allah) against the people of Kufr and hypocracy. They (the believers) strive for the establishment of His Deen, seeking help from Him, lifting and removing through that as much as they can of mischiefs, pushing away thereof what could be of fearful consequences.
This is very similar to the human being who removes actual hunger by eating, and with it pushes away future hunger. Also, when it gets cold, he pushes it away by wearing extra clothing. Similarly is the case of every required need which is used to push away the harm. As they (the Companions of the Prophet) said to the Prophet (SAAWS): "O Rasool-Allah! How about the medicines which we use to cure ourselves with, and Ruqa (1) we seek as remedies, and the safeguards we use to protect ourselves with? Do they prevent any of Allah's Qadar (Measure)?" He (SAAWS) replied: "They are indeed aspects of Allah's Qadar (Measure)." Also, in the Hadeeth: "The supplication and the affliction confront each other and struggle in between the heaven and the the earth." (2) This is the state of the believers in Allah (SWT) and in His Messenger (SAAWS), who offer their 'Ibaadah to Allah. All the aforementioned are aspects of 'Ibaadah. As for those who witness the universal truth -- the Lordship of Allah Ta'aala for everything -- and make it as an obstruction for not following His legislated religious Command, they are at different levels of being astray.
2) Narrated by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad (31421) and Ibn Maajah 3437 and
also narrated by At-Tirmidthi
The extravagant ones amongst them take it for absolute and general. They use Al-Qadar (the Measure) as an excuse in arguing for whatever they do in opposition to Ash-Sharee'ah (the legislated law). The saying of these people is worse than the saying of the Jews and Christians. It is of the same type as the saying of the Mushrikeen who said, If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in Al-'Ibaadah) with Him nor would our fathers, and we would not have had forbidden anything (against His Will). [Al-An'aam: 148]
And they said,
If it had been the Will of the Most Beneficient (Allah) we should not have worshiped them. [Az Zukhruf:20]
These people are the most
self-contradicting beings amongst the whole population of the earth.
Rather, anyone who argues using Al-Qadar (the Measure) is
self-contradicting. It is not possible to approve whatever every and
each human being does. It is incumbent on him when an unjust person
practices his unjustice on him, or on other people; or promotes
corruption on earth; or starts shedding the blood of people; or
rendering adultery allowable; or destroying the civilization and
humanity; and the like of such types of harm which the people can not
bear, that he should repel this fate and punish the unjust person in
order to prevent his aggression and the aggression of those like him. It
would be said to him: If Al-Qadar (the Measure) is an excuse in arguing,
then let anybody do to you and to other people whatever he likes. If,
rather, it is not an excuse in arguing, then the origin of your saying
is proven false.
The people of this kind of saying who use the universal truth as an excuse in arguing (for their mischiefs) do not reject it nor do they fully adhere to it. Rather, they follow their own whims and desires. Some scholars described them as: "In the instance of obedience you have a free-will. And in the instance of disobedience you are a fatalist. Whichever discipline fits your desire you take as your discipline."
Another kind of these people (who only witness the universal truth)
claim the realization tof the Truth) and the possession of the
Knowledge. They pretend that the commanding and forbidding ought to be
only for him who witnesses for himself certain deeds and confirms for
himself certain attributes. But he who witnesses that his deeds are
created, or that he is being forced to perform them, and Allah is the
one who directs him as He directs all other moving things, the promise
and threat are removed from upon him.
They might say, "Whoever witnesses the Will, the legislated commandment has been dropped from upon him." They alleged that Al-Khidr has had the legislated commandment removed from upon him since he witnessed the Will.
These people differentiate between the populace and the elite who witnessed the universal truth -- they witnessed that Allah is the creator of the creatures' actions and that He conforms and directs all beings.
Some other times they differentiate between the person who knows that in cognizance and the person who experiences that by witnessing. They do not drop off the legislated commandment from the person who only believes in that and just acknowledges it. But they drop it off of who witnesses it; the one who sees no action for himself to begin with.
As such, these people take fatalism and the affirmation of Al-Qadar (the Measure) as the waiver from being commanded.
In this, many sects which are affiliated with the Realization, the Cognizance, and the Unification have fallen. The reason behind that is: they were too narrow minded to imagine that Al-'Abd can be commanded with something contradicting what has been measured for him. Such was the case of Al Mu'tazilah and the rest of the Qadariyah (people of free-will) who were too narrow minded to grasp this fact.
Thus, Al-Mu'tazilah affirmed the legislated
Commanding and Forbidding but did not do so with Al-Qadhaa and Al-Qadar
(the Decree and the Measure), which are the General Will of Allah (SWT)
and His Creation of Al-'Ibaad's deeds.
On the other hand, the people (of Realization, Knowledge, and Unification) affirmed Al-Qadhaa and Al-Qadar (the Decree and the Measure) but rejected the Commanding and Forbidding for those who witnessed Al-Qadar, for they could not reject it in its totality (i.e for all the people). The saying of these latter is worse than the saying of Al-Mu'tazilah. That is why there were no such people amongst the predecessors of this Ummah. They categorize the Commanding and Forbidding solely for the so-called unenlightened people who did not witness the universal truth. That is why they drop off the Commanding and Forbidding from upon him who attains the witnessing of this truth and they say: He becomes of the elite. Furthermore, they might misinterpret for this purpose the saying of Allah (AWJ),
And worship your Lord until there comes unto you the Hour that is certain (i.e. death). [Al-Hijr:99]
According to them the certainty is the knowledge of this Reality.
The saying of these people is a clear Kufr -- although some sects fell into this without knowing that it is Kufr. For it is known, by necessity, from the Deen of Islaam that the Commanding and Forbidding are incumbent on every 'Abd as long as he is sane until he dies. They would not be waivered for him by his witnessing Al-Qadar nor by other means. Hence, whoever did not know that, it should be made known to him. If he insisted on believing in the waivering of the Commanding and Forbidding, he should be killed.
Such utterances were numerous amongst the recent people. Whereas amongst the predecessors of this Ummah such utterances were not known. For these utterances are indeed in opposition to Allah (SWT) and His Messenger (SAAWS), hostile to Them, an obstruction in His path, renouncing Him, denial of His Messengers, antagonistic to Him in His Decree even though the one who says that might not be aware of it and believes that what he is on is the way of the Messenger (SAAWS) and the way of the enlightened allies (Awleyaa) of Allah.
In such a way he is similar to the one who believes that As-Salaat is not
incumbent on him since he can dispense with it because of the experiences
of the hearts which have occured to him; or believes that liquors
are allowable to him due to him being of the elite who could not be harmed
by drinking liquors; or that lusting is allowable for him because he became
as a sea which can not be spoiled by sins, etc.
There is no doubt that Al-Mushrikeen who denied Ar Rasool (SAAWS) fluctuated between Al-Bid'ah (the innovation in Ad-Deen) which opposes the legislation of Allah (SWT), and using Al-Qadar for argument to oppose the Command of Allah (AWJ). Thus, the aforementioned types of people have resemblance to the Mushrikeen; they either make Bid'ah, or use Al Qadar for argument, or combine the two matters as Allah Ta'aala has said about Al-Mushrikeen,
When they commit a disgraceful sin, they say: 'We found our fathers doing it, and Allah has commanded us to do so.' Say: 'Nay, Allah never commands what is disgraceful. Do you say of Allah what you know not?' [Al-A'raaf:29], and as He (AWJ) has also said concerning them,
Those who take partners (in Al-'Ibaadah) with Allah will say:'If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in Al-'Ibaadah) with Him nor would our fathers, and we would not have had forbidden anything (against His will).' [Al-An'aam: 148]