The Sunnah

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The Fundamentals of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

118. The decision on every affair is for none but Allah the Exalted. "Verily, the Hukm is for Allah"(1).
(1) Qur'an 6.57 [Hukm means ruling and decision]

119. The Apostle is a legislator, by the command of Allah. "He does not speak of his own desire; his (speech was nothing other than) a revelation that was revealed."(2) He never legislated of his own accord or from his own desire.

(2) Qur'an 53.3-4

120. The religion which Allah commands us to follow, to worship Him, consists only of His words and the words of His messenger.(3)

(3) Say, obey Allah and obey His Apostle, but if they turn away, Allah does not love the Kafireen(those who reject faith)." 3.32

121. Islam is for its adherents a comprehensive way of life, encompassing all its aspects, including theological, political, social and economic. It consists of a full adherence to the ordinances and statutes of Allah and a total iman in all that he revealed.

122. No one is a Muslim in truth save he who resigns himself, his will, and his choice to Allah the Lord of the worlds. ("Say, verily my prayer, my (service of sacrifice), my life and death are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds.")(4)

(4) Qur'an 6.162

123. The Book of Allah, al-Qur'an, is composed of His words, sent down to Muhammad and is the eternal miracle whose recitation is an act of worship ordained by Allah. It is the primary base for the study of Islam. It is the very Qur'an that is with us today, and that is available to all throughout the world. He who alleges otherwise, such as those who allege it is hidden by the absent imam or another, is an unbeliever.(5)

(5) "But Allah bears witness that what He has sent down unto you (i.e., the Qur'an), He has sent forth with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness (to this fact), (but) Allah suffices for a witness." 4.166

124. Allah made clear in His Book what he has determined to be good or conducive to good in the affairs of mankind in this world and in the one to come. "And We have sent down to you the Book to make manifest everything, and as a guidance and a mercy and glad tidings for the Muslims."(6)

(6) Qur'an 16.89

125. There is no contradiction whatsoever in the ayat (verses) of the Qur'an. Ayat expressing similar meanings should be studied collectively rather than individually if a ruling or judgment is to be drawn from them.(7)

(7) This is a very important notion when it comes to deriving a ruling from such ayat. In fact, refraining from studying verses of similar or related meaning collectively led a sect called al-Jabriyyah to deviate from the right way when they considered the meaning of the verse: "And Allah created you and (created) your deeds." (37.96) and failed to consider with this verse: "As a reward for what they had accomplished." (56.24) Had al-Jabriyyah considered the meanings of the two verses in juxtaposition, they would not have ascribed injustice to Allah by holding the false belief that man has no free will in this world and has no control over his behaviour.

126. The Qur'an can be comprehended according to its clear and apparent meaning, and by the explanation and practice of Rasulullah (the Apostle of Allah), and by the practice of the pious predecessors of this ummah.(8)

(8) The 'pious predecessors' or as referred to in Arabic as-Salafus-Saalih are the companions of the Prophet and those who followed with piety. It is they whom Allah ordered us to follow saying: "And whoever opposes the Apostle after the right path has been shown clearly to him and follows other than the believers' way, We shall keep him in that path he has chosen and burn him in Hell." 4.115

127. The literal apparent meaning of the Quran and its explication are neither mutually contradictory nor inconsistent with one another. He whom Allah distinguishes with the understanding of the Qur'an and the knowledge of Qur'anic interpretation adduces only that which is in accord with the Qur'an.

128. Allah guarded His Book against alteration, addition or reduction until the end of this world. (9)

(9) "Whatever ayah We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring (in its place) a better one or one similar to it. Do you not know that Allah is able to do all things?" 2.106. "Verily, We have sent down the Qur'an and (surely) We will guard it." 15.9

129. The abrogation by Allah of some ayat of the Qur'an was of three distinct types:

(10) Zaid b. Thabit was reported to have said: I heard the Prophet reciting: "The old man and the old woman if they commit adultery stone them to death." This ayah is no longer part of the Qur'an, while the ruling it contained is still in effect.

(11) 'Umar ibn al-Khattab reported that there were verses of the Qur'an that they used to recite that were abrogated, and that they no longer recited.

130. The Qur'an may abrogate parts of the Sunnah (be it mutawatir(12) or aahaad(13)) and similarly the Sunnah (be it mutawatir or ahad) may abrogate rulings of the Qur'an. Both the Qur'an and Sunnah are from Allah.

(12) 'Mutawatir' is the tradition which has been transmitted by such a large number of narrators that it cannot be supposed that they all agreed to a falsehood. (Lane's Lexicon)

(13) Aahad is the tradition which has been transmitted by one narrator or a few narrators.

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