Attitude Towards non-Muslims


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Attitude Towards non-Muslims

104. All mankind descended from Adam, and Adam has a position of honour with Allah. All mankind is created to worship Him. It is incumbent on the da'ee to exert the utmost effort to make people aware of the duty Allah created them to fulfill(1).
(1) cf. Muslim Vol.IV, p.1387



105. People are different in quality like mines of gold and silver; those who were the best of their community before embracing Islam are the best after embracing Islam, provided they acquire religious knowledge(2).


(2) cf. Muslim Vol. IV, p. 1837



106. Everyone since the time of the mission of Muhammad belongs to the ummah of Muhammad (the ummah of da'wah), and those who have accepted the message conveyed by him belong to the ummah of Muhammad (the ummah of response)(3).


(3) Lest one be confused with the terms (the ummah of da'wah) and (the ummah of response) mentioned in article 107, it should be born in mind that Allah the Exalted, sent each and every prophet to his own people. However, He made Muhammad(Peace be on Him) the Seal of Prophets and made his message a universal one. As such, every human being existed at the time of Muhammad's mission or thereafter belongs to the universal nation of Muhammad(Peace be on Him) which is referred to as (the ummah of da'wah), while the term (the ummah of response) applies only to those who accepted the Divine mission of Muhammad(Peace be on Him) (i.e., Islam). There are numerous references in the Qur'an confirming the universality of Islam in which Allah addresses mankind at large to respond to the message with which He sent Muhammad, such as: Say (O Muhammad): "O mankind! Verily I am Allah's Apostle to you all" 7.158 "... and We did not send you except as a mercy to the worlds." 21.107



107. Anyone who heard of the mission of Muhammad be he a Jew, a Nasrani (Christian), or otherwise, and died without believing although he had been provided with evidence, is a kafir (unbeliever), and is of the people of the Fire(4).


(4) Abu Hurairah narrated: The Prophet observed: "by Him in Whose hand is the life of Muhammad, any Jew or Nasrani (Christian) who hears about me, and dies before affirming his belief in that with which I have been sent, he shall be but one of the companions of the Fire." Muslim Vol.1, p.91.



108. Muslims are commanded to fight the Arabs (in particular), until they believe (i.e., embrace Islam). If they declare belief their blood and property are inviolable, and it is up to Allah to judge their intention(5).


(5) Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger said: "I have been commanded to fight against people, until they testify that there is no god but Allah, and believe that I am His messenger, and believe in all that I have brought. (If they do so) their blood and riches are guaranteed protection and their affairs rest with Allah." Muslim Vol.1, p.17.



109. Non-Arab Nisara, Jews, Magians and others are to be fought until they believe (in the message of Islam) or pay Jizyah(6) in acknowledgement of their submission to the authority of the Muslims(7).


(6) See para. 59

(7) See para. 59



110. Peace treaties and pacts are permissible between Muslims and non-Muslims until the end of the world. It is up to the Muslims to choose whatever benefits them, strengthens and protects their lives and their properties.



111. It is not permissible for a Muslim leader or ruler to consummate a treaty or agreement with the unbelievers on behalf of Allah or His Apostle, but only on his own behalf, and that of his conipanions(8).


(8) It has been reported on the authority of Sulaiman b. Buraid's father that when the messenger of Allah appointed anyone leader of any army or detachment, he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and be good to the Muslims with him. Among other things he would say: "If you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions, for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you and your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated. "When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to summon them to the judgment of Allah, do not summon them to the judgment of Allah, but summon them to your own judgment, for youdo not know whether or not you will be able to reach the right judgment with regard to them." Muslim Book of al-Jihad.



112. Muslims are enjoined to fight the enemies of Islam in order to keep the word of Allah uppermost on earth(9).


(9) "And fight them until there is no more affliction (or oppression) and there prevails the religion of Allah (i.e. worshipping Allah alone)". 2.193



113. Policies set forth in the Qur'an and Sunnah have to be followed as a guide in dealing with the non-Muslims.



114. Kafirs (unbelievers) are not to be taken as confidential associates by Muslim rulers(10).


(10) "O you who believe! Take not as your intimates those (unbelievers) outside your religion. They will not fail to do their best to corrupt you." 3.118



115. Taking those of the kafirs who oppose us as intimate friends, and distinguishing them by bestowing love upon them, supporting them against Muslims, approving of their false religion or compromising a part of Islam for their false religion or for them is kufr (unbelief) and apostasy(11).


(11) "O you who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors) offering them love even though they have rejected the truth that has come to you." 60.1



116. It is recommended to treat peaceful unbelievers with kindness consideration and beneficence(12).


(12) Allah forbids you not, with regards to those who do not fight you for your faith, nor drive you out of your homes, that you should deal kindly and justly with them." 60.8



117. Inviting people to the path of Allah requires gentleness and courtesy, but fighting the enemy requires hardness and vehemence(13).


(13) "O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you and let them find harshness in you. . ." 9.123




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