Attitude Towards non-Muslims
Attitude Towards non-Muslims
104. All mankind descended from Adam, and Adam has a position of honour
with Allah. All mankind is created to worship Him. It is incumbent on the
da'ee to exert the utmost effort to make people aware of the duty Allah
created them to fulfill(1).
(1) cf. Muslim Vol.IV, p.1387
105. People are different in quality like mines of gold and silver; those who
were the best of their community before embracing Islam are the best after
embracing Islam, provided they acquire religious knowledge(2).
(2) cf. Muslim Vol. IV, p. 1837
106. Everyone since the time of the mission of Muhammad belongs to the
ummah of Muhammad (the ummah of da'wah), and those who have accepted
the message conveyed by him belong to the ummah of Muhammad (the ummah
(3) Lest one be confused with the terms (the ummah of da'wah) and (the
ummah of response) mentioned in article 107, it should be born in mind that
Allah the Exalted, sent each and every prophet to his own people. However,
He made Muhammad(Peace be on Him) the Seal of Prophets and made his
message a universal one. As such, every human being existed at the time of
Muhammad's mission or thereafter belongs to the universal nation of
Muhammad(Peace be on Him) which is referred to as (the ummah of da'wah),
while the term (the ummah of response) applies only to those who accepted
the Divine mission of Muhammad(Peace be on Him) (i.e., Islam). There are
numerous references in the Qur'an confirming the universality of Islam in
which Allah addresses mankind at large to respond to the message with which
He sent Muhammad, such as: Say (O Muhammad): "O mankind! Verily I am
Allah's Apostle to you all"
"... and We did not send you except as a
mercy to the worlds."
107. Anyone who heard of the mission of Muhammad be he a Jew, a Nasrani
(Christian), or otherwise, and died without believing although he had been
provided with evidence, is a kafir (unbeliever), and is of the people of the
(4) Abu Hurairah narrated: The Prophet observed: "by Him in Whose hand is
the life of Muhammad, any Jew or Nasrani (Christian) who hears about me,
and dies before affirming his belief in that with which I have been sent, he
shall be but one of the companions of the Fire." Muslim Vol.1, p.91.
108. Muslims are commanded to fight the Arabs (in particular), until they
believe (i.e., embrace Islam). If they declare belief their blood and property
are inviolable, and it is up to Allah to judge their intention(5).
(5) Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger said: "I have been commanded
to fight against people, until they testify that there is no god but Allah, and
believe that I am His messenger, and believe in all that I have brought. (If
they do so) their blood and riches are guaranteed protection and their affairs
rest with Allah." Muslim Vol.1, p.17.
109. Non-Arab Nisara, Jews, Magians and others are to be fought until they
believe (in the message of Islam) or pay Jizyah(6) in acknowledgement of
their submission to the authority of the Muslims(7).
(6) See para. 59
(7) See para. 59
110. Peace treaties and pacts are permissible between Muslims and
non-Muslims until the end of the world. It is up to the Muslims to choose
whatever benefits them, strengthens and protects their lives and their
111. It is not permissible for a Muslim leader or ruler to consummate a
treaty or agreement with the unbelievers on behalf of Allah or His Apostle,
but only on his own behalf, and that of his conipanions(8).
(8) It has been reported on the authority of Sulaiman b. Buraid's father that
when the messenger of Allah appointed anyone leader of any army or
detachment, he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and be good to the
Muslims with him. Among other things he would say: "If you lay siege to a
fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His
Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but
accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions,
for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you and your companions be
disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His
Prophet be violated. "When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to
summon them to the judgment of Allah, do not summon them to the judgment
of Allah, but summon them to your own judgment, for youdo not know
whether or not you will be able to reach the right judgment with regard to
them." Muslim Book of al-Jihad.
112. Muslims are enjoined to fight the enemies of Islam in order to keep the
word of Allah uppermost on earth(9).
(9) "And fight them until there is no more affliction (or oppression) and there
prevails the religion of Allah (i.e. worshipping Allah alone)".
113. Policies set forth in the Qur'an and Sunnah have to be followed as a guide
in dealing with the non-Muslims.
114. Kafirs (unbelievers) are not to be taken as confidential associates by
(10) "O you who believe! Take not as your intimates those (unbelievers)
outside your religion. They will not fail to do their best to corrupt you."
115. Taking those of the kafirs who oppose us as intimate friends, and
distinguishing them by bestowing love upon them, supporting them against
Muslims, approving of their false religion or compromising a part of Islam for
their false religion or for them is kufr (unbelief) and apostasy(11).
(11) "O you who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or
protectors) offering them love even though they have rejected the truth that
has come to you."
116. It is recommended to treat peaceful unbelievers with kindness
consideration and beneficence(12).
(12) Allah forbids you not, with regards to those who do not fight you for
your faith, nor drive you out of your homes, that you should deal kindly and
justly with them."
117. Inviting people to the path of Allah requires gentleness and courtesy, but
fighting the enemy requires hardness and vehemence(13).
(13) "O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you
and let them find harshness in you. . ."