The Muslim Ummah

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The Muslim Ummah

67. We believe that all of the apostles and Prophets and their followers are one single nation: the ummah (nation of iman), as Allah says: "Verily this Ummah of yours is one single ummah, and I am your Lord, therefore worship Me(1).
(1) cf. Qur'an: 21.92

68. We attach ourselves to every believer from our predecessors back to Adam, and from those of succeeding generations down to those who will fight ad-Dajjal(2) at the end of time. We love them all whether or not they are know to us, and defend their honour.

(2) See para. 59.

69. The followers of Muhammad(Peace be on Him), the first and last of whom comprise one single ummah, the ummah of Islam and iman, are joined together by one aqeedah and one set of laws regardless of their race or country of origin(3). We love them all and believe that all believers are brothers.

(3) "O mankind: We created you from (a single pair of) male and female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know, one another. Verily, the most honourable of you in the sight of Allah is that (believer) who is most God-fearing." 49.13.

70. We extend our love and support to the people of our ummah and aid no infidel nor enemy against them.

71. We battle with and abhor racist, nationalistic, sectarian and partisan zealots who would sunder the unity of the Muslims(4).

(4) "Those who divide their religion and break it up into sects, you have no part in them." 6.159. "And be not among the mushrikeen; those who split up their religion and form sects." 30.32. It has been narrated on the authority of Arfajah who said: "I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Different evils will make their appearance in the near future. Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword whoever he be.'" Muslim Vol. III, p.1031.

72. The best of men in the Muslim ummahl, next to the Prophet, is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, then Umar bin al-Khattab then Uthman then Ali(5). It's best generation, according to the authentic ahadeeth, (traditions) is that of the lifetime of the prophet, then that generation which succeeded it(6).

(5) Sunni Muslims are in unison with regards to the superiority of the four khulafa (caliphs) according to their chronological order; Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman then Ali.

(6) Abdullah b. Masood reported Allah's Messenger(Peace be on Him) as saying: "The best among people are of my generation, then those next to them." Muslim Vol.IV, p.1346.

73. We love all the companions of the Apostle of Allah, and attach ourselves to them. Of all the companions of all the prophets, they were the best; they aided the religion of Allah and struggled along with the Chief of Messengers(7). He who imputes to them disbelief or infidelity we regard as an unbeliever, because he rejects the evidence of their excellence given by the Lord of the worlds(8).

(7) "And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajirin (those who migrated from Mecca to Medinah) and Ansar (citizens of Medinah who helped the Muhajirin) and those who followed them exactly (in faith), Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever, That is the ultimate success." 9.100.

(8) Abu Hurairah narrated: Allah's messenger said: "Do not revile my companions. By Him in Whose hand is my life if one of you would have spent (in charity) a pile of gold as big as Mount Uhud, it would not amount to as much as one mudd (about 2/3 of a kilo) of one of them nor even half of mudd (spent in charity).

74. We abstain from dwelling on any differences of opinion among the companions of the Prophet(Peace be on Him), and we hold the belief that they were Mujtahidoon(9) whose rewards are with Allah; they were not infallible apostles.

(9) Mujtahidoon (pl. of Mujtihad): scholars who use their reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue.

75. The believers are distinct in respect of their iman. Ofthem are those who do themselves injustice, those who pursue the middle road in their affairs and those who, by the will of Allah hasten to good deeds(10). Allah promised all of them a good outcome in the Hereafter, each in accordance with his level of iman.

(10) cf Quran: 35.32.

76. We regard a person as a Muslim immediately upon witnessing his recitation of the Shahadah(11) or his performance of a Muslim act of worship(12).

(11) The testification of faith, "There is no god truly worthy of worship but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger.

(12) The author has explained that performing an act of worship that is exclusively Islamic is sufficient for a person to be regarded as a Muslim. Without a doubt, performing a single act of worship without the Shahadah will be considered null and void, but the author most properly refers to the following tradition: Anas reported the Prophet(Peace be on Him) as saying: "I have been ordered to fight the people until they say: "There is no god but Allah, and if they say so and pray like we do, facing our Qiblah and slaughter animals (for food) as we do, then their blood and property will be sacred to us, and we will not interfere with them except legally, and their reckoning will be with Allah." Bukhari, Vol.1, p.234.

77. We do not cast a Muslim out of the fold of Islam upon his commission of an act of disbelief due to his ignorance, misunderstanding or compulsion, or due to an assumption by him that his act is conducive to good. The verdict of disbelief can only be given when there is established evidence that the person committed the wrong wilfully, and knowingly.

78. We do not attribute disbelief to anyone of the people of the Qiblah (i.e., Muslims in general) by reason of any sin he committed, unless he did it knowing it to be unlawful, and treating it as if it were lawful.

79. Jannah has been guaranteed only to those to whom Allah gave His assurance in His Book, and to those in whose favour the Messenger of Allah testified. Visions and dreams are not proofs of admission to Jannah. Although we wish Jannah for those we deem to be pious, we cannot decisively assert that any individual will be admitted to it(13).

(13) "So ascribe not piety to yourselves. He knows best who it is that keep his duty to Allah." 53.32

80. The believing men and women are all awliyaa(14) (proteges) of the Compassionate. The further the slave advances on the path of iman the greater his support of Allah's cause becomes and the greater support he receives from Allah in return(15). We bear witness that Allah does not take a protege who has neither iman nor good deeds as Sufi Zendiqs(16) allege.

(14) Awliyaa (pl. of waliy) those who are in receipt of the constant beneficence and favour of Allah; believers who are favoured by Allah.

(15) "Allah is the protector of those who have faith; from the depth of darkness He will lead them forth into the light. and those who reject faith are the patrons of taghoot(a false object of worship)" 2.257

(16) Zendiq: a heretic, one who deviates from the right religion Islam.

81. We judge Muslims by their outward manner and leave their intention for Allah to judge(17).

(17) "And pursue not that of which you have no knowledge. Verily, every act of hearing or of seeing and(intention) will be inquired into(on the Day of Judgment)." 17.36 "O you who believe: avoid suspicion as much(as possible) for suspicion in some cases is a sin." 49.12 The Prophet(Peace be on Him) reproached one of his companions who happened kill an enemy after he had uttered Shahadah. The companion justified killing the man by saying to the Prophet(Peace be on Him) that he uttered Shahadah out of fear and death. Thereupon, the Prophet(Peace be on Him) said: "Did you tear his heart open in order to find out whether he said it (out of belief) or not." Muslim Vol. I, p.176, p.56

82. Salaah (prayer) in congregation is a duty for us, whether the Muslim imam(18) is righteous or not(19). And we participate in Jihad against the enemies of Muslims under the leadership of Muslim rulers whether they are just or unjust(20). Piety is not a precondition for leading jihad or salah.

(18) Imam is the one who leads the congregation in prayers. The word imam also means the leader of the Muslim community.

(19) The sunni Muslims do not hold the belief that imams are infallable; a Muslim ruler or imam may upright or otherwise. It is incumbent upon Muslims to obey them. allah says: "O you who believe: obey Allah, and obey the Apostle and those of you who are in authority." 4.59 It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: One who abandonned obedience to the leader and separated from the main body of the Muslims and died in that state would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahilyyah(pre-Islamic era) i.e. he would not die as a Muslim. Muslim Vol. III, p.1029 According to another tradition in Sahih Muslim, it is enough that the Muslim subject abhor his leader's act of disobedience; he should not rebell against him. Similarly, praying behind an erring imam, if noone better is available, bearing in mind the value of unity of the Muslim ummah. Ubaidullah narrated: "I went to Uthman bin Affan(may Allah be pleased with him) when he was besieged (just before he was murdered), and said to him: 'You are the chief of all the Muslims and you see what has befallen you. We are lead in a prayer by a leader of the rebellion, and we are afraid of being sinful in following him.' Uthman said: 'The prayer is the best of all deeds, so when the people do good deeds do the same with them and when they do bad deeds avoid their bad deeds.'" Bukhari Vol.I, p.376

(20) Jihad is fighting in the way of Allah. So long as the fighting is for the purpose of maintaining the superiority of the word of Allah, the calibre of the Muslim ruler who calls for it should not be considered in responding to his call. Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet (Peace be on Him) as saying: 'Jihad is a duty on you with every (Muslim) leader be he obedient, or disobedient, even if he committed the great sins, and (congregational) prayer is duty on you behind every Muslim imam be he obedient or disobedient, even if he committed the great sins." Abu Dawood, Hadith-2533, p.18

83. We are not permitted to war against any of Muhammad's ummah except in self-defence(21). Even then, we believe that it is preferable to forgo fighting (against Muslims)(22). We deem it lawful to shed the blood of Muslims only in the case of the married adulterer, the murderer or the one who quits his religion and departs from Jama'ah(23).

(21)Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (Peace be on Him) said: "He who takes up arms against us is not of us, and he who acts dishonestly towards us is not of us." Muslim Vol.I, p.58.

(22)Foregoing fighting against Muslims is recommended for the preserving of Muslim unity and Muslim blood (cf. the rebellion against the third Caliph Uthman). Ahnaf b. Qais reported on the authority of Abu Bakr that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon Him) said: "When two Muslims confront each other with thier swords, both slayer and the slain are doomed to the Fire." Muslim Vol.IV, p.1496.

(23)Bukhari Vol.IX, p.7.

84. Any call the purpose of which is the absorption of Muslims into the society of disbelieving nations, or which leads to the compromise of any part of our religion, or to the approval of any part of the religion of the unbelievers is a false call whether the motives imputed to it be humanitarian, nationalistic or sectarian. We declare before Allah that we dissociate ourselves from any assembly which stands opposed to Islam and fights against it(24).

(24)"He has revealed to you the Book, that when you hear the signs of Allah held in defiance and ridicule, you are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different theme. If you sat with them then you would be like them." 4.140

85. Every group of Muslims who agree with us in respect to good, piety, and jihad to support and invite to the way of Allah(25), are our brothers, as long as they do not claim that they are the only legitimate Muslims, and that all others are unbelievers(26).

(25)"You are the best of people ever raised up for mankind, you enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong, and you beleive in Allah." 3.110

(26)The issue of imputing disbelief to Muslims is important not to be underestimated. Ibn Umar reported the Prophet (Peace be on Him) as saying: "Any person who calls his brother: O unbeliever! (has done an act by which this unbelief) would return to one of them. If it were so, as he asserted, (then the unbelief of the man was confirmed, but if it was not true), then the state of unbelief would apply to him (who labelled his brother an unbeliever). Muslim Vol.I, p.41.

86. The Muslim ummah is the best ummah raised from mankind throughout the ages. It is the inheritor of Allah's religion and the inviter to it up till the end of this world. The Muslims were the last ummah raised by Allah, yet they will be the foremost on the Day of Judgement(27).

(27)Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet(Peace be on Him) as saying: "We are the last and would be the first on the Day of Resurrection." Muslim Vol.II, p.405. Since the Prophet (Peace be on Him) is the last of the Prophets, his Ummah is the nation which has received the last of Allah's scriptures. On the Day of Judjment the Prophet (Peace be on Him) would occupy the highest rank and his Ummah will be superior to the other umum (nations).

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