The Muslim Ummah
The Muslim Ummah
67. We believe that all of the apostles and Prophets and their followers are
one single nation: the ummah (nation of iman), as Allah says: "Verily this
Ummah of yours is one single ummah, and I am your Lord, therefore worship
(1) cf. Qur'an:
68. We attach ourselves to every believer from our predecessors back to
Adam, and from those of succeeding generations down to those who will fight
ad-Dajjal(2) at the end of time. We love them all whether or not they are
know to us, and defend their honour.
(2) See para. 59.
69. The followers of Muhammad(Peace be on Him), the first and last of whom
comprise one single ummah, the ummah of Islam and iman, are joined together
by one aqeedah and one set of laws regardless of their race or country of
origin(3). We love them all and believe that all believers are brothers.
(3) "O mankind: We created you from (a single pair of) male and female and
made you into nations and tribes that you may know, one another. Verily, the
most honourable of you in the sight of Allah is that (believer) who is most
70. We extend our love and support to the people of our ummah and aid no
infidel nor enemy against them.
71. We battle with and abhor racist, nationalistic, sectarian and partisan
zealots who would sunder the unity of the Muslims(4).
(4) "Those who divide their religion and break it up into sects, you have no
part in them."
"And be not among the mushrikeen; those who split up
their religion and form sects."
It has been narrated on the authority of
Arfajah who said: "I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Different evils
will make their appearance in the near future. Anyone who tries to disrupt
the affairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with
the sword whoever he be.'" Muslim Vol. III, p.1031.
72. The best of men in the Muslim ummahl, next to the Prophet, is Abu Bakr
as-Siddiq, then Umar bin al-Khattab then Uthman then Ali(5). It's best
generation, according to the authentic ahadeeth, (traditions) is that of the
lifetime of the prophet, then that generation which succeeded it(6).
(5) Sunni Muslims are in unison with regards to the superiority of the four
khulafa (caliphs) according to their chronological order; Abu Bakr, Umar,
Uthman then Ali.
(6) Abdullah b. Masood reported Allah's Messenger(Peace be on Him) as
saying: "The best among people are of my generation, then those next to
them." Muslim Vol.IV, p.1346.
73. We love all the companions of the Apostle of Allah, and attach ourselves
to them. Of all the companions of all the prophets, they were the best; they
aided the religion of Allah and struggled along with the Chief of
Messengers(7). He who imputes to them disbelief or infidelity we regard as
an unbeliever, because he rejects the evidence of their excellence given by
the Lord of the worlds(8).
(7) "And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajirin (those who migrated
from Mecca to Medinah) and Ansar (citizens of Medinah who helped the
Muhajirin) and those who followed them exactly (in faith), Allah is
well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared
for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever, That is
the ultimate success."
(8) Abu Hurairah narrated: Allah's messenger said: "Do not revile my
companions. By Him in Whose hand is my life if one of you would have spent
(in charity) a pile of gold as big as Mount Uhud, it would not amount to as
much as one mudd (about 2/3 of a kilo) of one of them nor even half of mudd
(spent in charity).
74. We abstain from dwelling on any differences of opinion among the
companions of the Prophet(Peace be on Him), and we hold the belief that they
were Mujtahidoon(9) whose rewards are with Allah; they were not infallible
(9) Mujtahidoon (pl. of Mujtihad): scholars who use their reason for the
purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue.
75. The believers are distinct in respect of their iman. Ofthem are those who
do themselves injustice, those who pursue the middle road in their affairs and
those who, by the will of Allah hasten to good deeds(10). Allah promised all
of them a good outcome in the Hereafter, each in accordance with his level of
(10) cf Quran:
76. We regard a person as a Muslim immediately upon witnessing his
recitation of the Shahadah(11) or his performance of a Muslim act of
(11) The testification of faith, "There is no god truly worthy of worship but
Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger.
(12) The author has explained that performing an act of worship that is
exclusively Islamic is sufficient for a person to be regarded as a Muslim.
Without a doubt, performing a single act of worship without the Shahadah will
be considered null and void, but the author most properly refers to the
following tradition: Anas reported the Prophet(Peace be on Him) as saying: "I
have been ordered to fight the people until they say: "There is no god but
Allah, and if they say so and pray like we do, facing our Qiblah and slaughter
animals (for food) as we do, then their blood and property will be sacred to
us, and we will not interfere with them except legally, and their reckoning
will be with Allah." Bukhari, Vol.1, p.234.
77. We do not cast a Muslim out of the fold of Islam upon his commission of an
act of disbelief due to his ignorance, misunderstanding or compulsion, or due
to an assumption by him that his act is conducive to good. The verdict of
disbelief can only be given when there is established evidence that the person
committed the wrong wilfully, and knowingly.
78. We do not attribute disbelief to anyone of the people of the Qiblah (i.e.,
Muslims in general) by reason of any sin he committed, unless he did it
knowing it to be unlawful, and treating it as if it were lawful.
79. Jannah has been guaranteed only to those to whom Allah gave His
assurance in His Book, and to those in whose favour the Messenger of Allah
testified. Visions and dreams are not proofs of admission to Jannah.
Although we wish Jannah for those we deem to be pious, we cannot decisively
assert that any individual will be admitted to it(13).
(13) "So ascribe not piety to yourselves. He knows best who it is that keep
his duty to Allah."
80. The believing men and women are all awliyaa(14) (proteges) of the
Compassionate. The further the slave advances on the path of iman the
greater his support of Allah's cause becomes and the greater support he
receives from Allah in return(15). We bear witness that Allah does not take a
protege who has neither iman nor good deeds as Sufi Zendiqs(16) allege.
(14) Awliyaa (pl. of waliy) those who are in receipt of the constant
beneficence and favour of Allah; believers who are favoured by Allah.
(15) "Allah is the protector of those who have faith; from the depth of
darkness He will lead them forth into the light. and those who reject faith are
the patrons of taghoot(a false object of worship)"
(16) Zendiq: a heretic, one who deviates from the right religion Islam.
81. We judge Muslims by their outward manner and leave their intention for
Allah to judge(17).
(17) "And pursue not that of which you have no knowledge. Verily, every act
of hearing or of seeing and(intention) will be inquired into(on the Day of
"O you who believe: avoid suspicion as much(as possible)
for suspicion in some cases is a sin."
The Prophet(Peace be on Him)
reproached one of his companions who happened kill an enemy after he had
uttered Shahadah. The companion justified killing the man by saying to the
Prophet(Peace be on Him) that he uttered Shahadah out of fear and death.
Thereupon, the Prophet(Peace be on Him) said: "Did you tear his heart open in
order to find out whether he said it (out of belief) or not." Muslim Vol. I,
82. Salaah (prayer) in congregation is a duty for us, whether the Muslim
imam(18) is righteous or not(19). And we participate in Jihad against the
enemies of Muslims under the leadership of Muslim rulers whether they are
just or unjust(20). Piety is not a precondition for leading jihad or salah.
(18) Imam is the one who leads the congregation in prayers. The word imam
also means the leader of the Muslim community.
(19) The sunni Muslims do not hold the belief that imams are infallable; a
Muslim ruler or imam may upright or otherwise. It is incumbent upon Muslims
to obey them. allah says: "O you who believe: obey Allah, and obey the
Apostle and those of you who are in authority."
It has been narrated on
the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: One who
abandonned obedience to the leader and separated from the main body of the
Muslims and died in that state would die the death of one belonging to the days
of Jahilyyah(pre-Islamic era) i.e. he would not die as a Muslim. Muslim Vol.
III, p.1029 According to another tradition in Sahih Muslim, it is enough that
the Muslim subject abhor his leader's act of disobedience; he should not rebell
against him. Similarly, praying behind an erring imam, if noone better is
available, bearing in mind the value of unity of the Muslim ummah. Ubaidullah
narrated: "I went to Uthman bin Affan(may Allah be pleased with him) when
he was besieged (just before he was murdered), and said to him: 'You are the
chief of all the Muslims and you see what has befallen you. We are lead in a
prayer by a leader of the rebellion, and we are afraid of being sinful in
following him.' Uthman said: 'The prayer is the best of all deeds, so when the
people do good deeds do the same with them and when they do bad deeds avoid
their bad deeds.'" Bukhari Vol.I, p.376
(20) Jihad is fighting in the way of Allah. So long as the fighting is for the
purpose of maintaining the superiority of the word of Allah, the calibre of the
Muslim ruler who calls for it should not be considered in responding to his
call. Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet (Peace be on Him) as saying: 'Jihad is
a duty on you with every (Muslim) leader be he obedient, or disobedient, even
if he committed the great sins, and (congregational) prayer is duty on you
behind every Muslim imam be he obedient or disobedient, even if he
committed the great sins." Abu Dawood, Hadith-2533, p.18
83. We are not permitted to war against any of Muhammad's ummah except
in self-defence(21). Even then, we believe that it is preferable to forgo
fighting (against Muslims)(22). We deem it lawful to shed the blood of
Muslims only in the case of the married adulterer, the murderer or the one
who quits his religion and departs from Jama'ah(23).
(21)Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet (Peace be on Him) said: "He who
takes up arms against us is not of us, and he who acts dishonestly towards us
is not of us." Muslim Vol.I, p.58.
(22)Foregoing fighting against Muslims is recommended for the preserving of
Muslim unity and Muslim blood (cf. the rebellion against the third Caliph
Uthman). Ahnaf b. Qais reported on the authority of Abu Bakr that Allah's
Messenger (Peace be upon Him) said: "When two Muslims confront each other
with thier swords, both slayer and the slain are doomed to the Fire." Muslim
(23)Bukhari Vol.IX, p.7.
84. Any call the purpose of which is the absorption of Muslims into the
society of disbelieving nations, or which leads to the compromise of any part
of our religion, or to the approval of any part of the religion of the
unbelievers is a false call whether the motives imputed to it be humanitarian,
nationalistic or sectarian. We declare before Allah that we dissociate
ourselves from any assembly which stands opposed to Islam and fights
(24)"He has revealed to you the Book, that when you hear the signs of Allah
held in defiance and ridicule, you are not to sit with them unless they turn to
a different theme. If you sat with them then you would be like them."
85. Every group of Muslims who agree with us in respect to good, piety, and
jihad to support and invite to the way of Allah(25), are our brothers, as long
as they do not claim that they are the only legitimate Muslims, and that all
others are unbelievers(26).
(25)"You are the best of people ever raised up for mankind, you enjoin what
is right, and forbid what is wrong, and you beleive in Allah."
(26)The issue of imputing disbelief to Muslims is important not to be
underestimated. Ibn Umar reported the Prophet (Peace be on Him) as saying:
"Any person who calls his brother: O unbeliever! (has done an act by which
this unbelief) would return to one of them. If it were so, as he asserted, (then
the unbelief of the man was confirmed, but if it was not true), then the state
of unbelief would apply to him (who labelled his brother an unbeliever).
Muslim Vol.I, p.41.
86. The Muslim ummah is the best ummah raised from mankind throughout the
ages. It is the inheritor of Allah's religion and the inviter to it up till the end
of this world. The Muslims were the last ummah raised by Allah, yet they
will be the foremost on the Day of Judgement(27).
(27)Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet(Peace be on Him) as saying: "We are
the last and would be the first on the Day of Resurrection." Muslim Vol.II,
p.405. Since the Prophet (Peace be on Him) is the last of the Prophets, his
Ummah is the nation which has received the last of Allah's scriptures. On the
Day of Judjment the Prophet (Peace be on Him) would occupy the highest rank
and his Ummah will be superior to the other umum (nations).