The Belief in Predestination and Fatalism


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The Belief in Predestination and Fatalism

63. Allah created everything in due proportion. His determination of the nature of things was established fifty thousand years before He created the Heavens and earth(1). Nothing occurs or takes shape within the heavens or earth but with His knowledge, and by His order. There is nothing absent from the knowledge of Allah(2).
1- "No misfortune can happen on earth or in yourselves but it is recorded in a decree, before We bring it into existence. That is truly easy for Allah." 57.22.
Abdullah b. Amr B. al-As reported: "I heard Allah's Apostle(Peace be on Him) saying: 'Allah ordained the destiny of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth."' Muslim, Vol.lV. p 1397.

2- cf. Qur'an 2.255



64. Allah has already ordained happiness to some and adversity to others(3). It is an inalterable decree. The pen has run dry and the records have been folded up(4). There can be no change in the words of Allah.


3- Ali reported the Prophet(Peace be on Him) as saying: "There is not one amongst you for whom a seat in Paradise or Hell has not been allotted and about whom it has not been written down whether he would be a miserable person or a happy one. A man said: "O Apostle of Allah: Should we not then depend upon our destiny and abandon our deeds:?" Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever belongs to the company of happiness he will have good works made easier for him, and who belongs to the company of misery, he will have evil acts made easier for him." Then he recited: "As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah, and believes in the best reward from Allah, We will make easy for him the means of good deeds, (which leads to Jannah) and who is miserly and considers himself above need (for Allah), We shall make easy for him the means of evil deeds (which leads to Hell Fire." (92.5-10) Muslim Vol.IV, p.1393.

4- The expression "The pen has run dry" implies that the decrees of Allah are decisive and final and can never be changed or altered.



65. Good and evil exist by Allah's decree, and everyone gains one or the other through his own choice and by the exercise of his own will. Nonetheless, the good occurs only with the help of Allah, and the evil occurs not against His will but only by His leave.



66. We do not say that man has no power to act and is forced to do whatever he does(5), nor do we say that man creates and chooses his own deeds entirely of his own free will, operating independent of and superior to the will of Allah(6).


5- This is the doctrine of al-Jabriyyah This sect believes that a man is compelled to lead life the way he does and has no voluntary actions.

6- This is the doctrine of al-Qadariyyah. This sect takes a position at the opposite extreme to that of al-Jabriyyah, denying predestination by Allah altogether. (Lane's Lexicon)




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