The Uniqueness of Allah's Attributes

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The Uniqueness of Allah's Attributes

6. Allah is Everliving, Self-subsisting, the Sustainer, He by Whom all things, al-`Arsh(1), al-Kursiyy (2), the heavens, the earth and all that is therein were created; they all stand in need of Him, and He stands in need of none. To Him belong Glory and Majesty.

1- Al-`Arsh was the first created thing, and it is the greatest of all. It is one of the things which mankind knows not in reality, but only by name. It is erroneously translated as "throne" for if it were that, it would be a support to Allah. Allah says: "Verily Allah holds the heavens and the earth, lest they should move from their place; and if they should move from their place, no one would hold them after Him " 35.59 [cf. Mufradat of ar-Raghib]

2-Although there are different traditions describing al-Kursiyy, none of them is proven to be authentic, according to ash-Sheikh Nassirud-Din al-Albani (the leading authority in the science of Hadeeth of the present time) except one hadeeth quoted by him in his Silsilatul Ahdadeeth as-Sahihah (No. 109 of Vol.1): The Prophet (Peace be on Him) was reported to have said: "The seven heavens by the side of the KURSIYY are nought but as a ring thrown down in a desert land: and such is the KURSIYY with respect to the `ARSH."

7. Allah is the omniscient, Whose knowledge comprehends in the most perfect manner all things, hidden or open, the small and the great(3). Nothing is absent from His knowledge, nor anything is hidden from Him even if it be the weight of the smallest ant(4). Whether at rest or in motion, the state of things is known to Him prior to and during its occurrance. He is neither 'heedless nor is He errant(5)

3- cf. Qur'an 76.14
4- cf. Qur'an 10.61
5- Qur'an 20.52

8. Allah the Supreme is the Lord of everything and is its proprietor. He has a free hand in the disposal of all affairs. There is no one to share His domain nor is there an aider or supporter from His creatures.

9. Allah the Glorified is the Compassionate, the Merciful Whose mercy encompasses all things. He is far removed from injustice or tyranny(6).

6- Qur'an 18.49

10. Allah is well acquainted with internal and external affairs of all things, and is All-Wise. He is free from defect or imperfection. There is no incongruity nor any unsoundness in His judgment(7). Nothing He chooses is in vain, nor is there anything not under His control.

7- Qur'an 21.16

11. Allah the Exalted loves, feels contentment, rejoices and laughs, and He also hates, dislikes, abhors and becomes angry, yet none of these Divine attributes resembles those of human beings(8).

8- The term 'Divine attributes' is restricted to the attributes imputed to Allah by Himself, or by His Apostle(Peace be on Him). They should not be carried beyond their linguistic meaning. One should avoid trying to imagine the reality of these attributes; to deny them, or to attempt to interpret them, leads to kufr (unbelief).

12. Allah the Exalted is Gracious and Merciful, Who delivers His believing slaves and supports them. The disbelievers on the other hand, He leaves bereft of aid, punishes, exacts vengeance upon, deceives and draws to destruction little by little.

13. Allah the Most High speaks to his slaves as He wishes(9). He descends and comes closer to His slaves as He wills(10). He has a face(11), a hand(12) a leg(13) and a foot(14). Yet none of the attributes of His essence resembles those of human beings.

9- "And to Moses Allah spoke direct" 4.164

10- Abu Hurairah narrated: "Allah's Apostle said: Every night when it is the last third of the night, our Lord, the Supreme, the Blessed descends to the nearest heaven and says: 'Is there anyone to invoke Me that I may respond to his invocation? Is there anyone to ask Me that I may grant his request? Is there anyone asking My forgiveness so that I may forgive him?'" Bukhari Vol IX, p 435.

11- There are eleven ayat (verses) in the Qur'an referring to the "Face of Allah" (viz 2.115, 2.272, 13.22, 30.38, 30.39, 55.27, 76.9, 92.20, 6.52, 18.28, 28.88)

12-There are ten ayat in the Qur'an referring to the "Hands of Allah' (viz 003.073, 005.064 (2), 048.010, 057.029, 003.026, 023.088, 036.083, 067.001, 049.001, 038.075, 036.071)

13- "The day the Shin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to prostrate, but they shall not be able to do so." 68.42

14- Anas narrated: The Prophet(Peace be on Him) said: "The people will be thrown into Hell Fire and it will keep on saying, 'Are there any more? Until the Lord of the Worlds puts His feet over it , whereupon its sides will come close to each other, and it will say: 'Enough, enough'. . . " Bukhari Vol. IX, p.357

14. Allah, Praise be to Him, is the Omnipotent, and there is nothing to frustrate His power or ability to attain or accomplish anything, nor does the preservation of the heavens and earth burden Him(15). There is no strength nor power to do anything except by means of Him.

15- cf. Qur'an: 2.255

15. Allah the Supreme is Benignant, Generous with His bounty. He confers benefits and favours upon His slaves. There is neither a gift nor a grace but from Him, and there is none who can repel or withhold His bounties.

16. Allah the Glorious is far greater than to be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures(16), and there is no reign which can surpass His. No one can praise Allah as well as Allah praises Himself, nor is there any who can comprehend the essence of Allah as Allah does.

16- "He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they cannot encompass Him with their knowledge." 20.110

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